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Crystal Growth

  1. John C. Brice1,
  2. Peter Rudolph2

Published Online: 15 APR 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a08_099.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Brice, J. C. and Rudolph, P. 2007. Crystal Growth. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Philips Research Laboratories, Redhill, Surrey, United Kingdom

  2. 2

    Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2007

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.Historical Aspects
1.2.Uses of Single Crystals
1.3.Specification of Crystals
1.4.Commercial Aspects
1.5.Sources of Information
2.Thermodynamic Aspects
2.1.Free Energy and Driving Force of Crystallization
2.2.Phase Relations for Major Components
2.3.Phase Relations for Minor Components
2.4.Interfacial Effects
2.5.Shortcomings of the Thermodynamic Approach
3.Growth Kinetics
3.1.Atomic Structure of Growing Interfaces
3.2.Rough Faces
3.3.Perfect Singular Faces
3.4.Imperfect Singular Faces
4.Transport Effects
4.1.Transport Processes
4.2.Boundary Layers
4.3.Mass Flow of Major Components
4.4.Mass Flow of Minor Components
4.5.Heat Flow
4.6.Interface Stability
5.Practical Considerations
5.1.Raw Materials
5.2.Temperature Control
5.3.Containers and Atmospheres
5.4.Selection and Optimization of Methods
5.5.Characterization
6.Melt Growth Techniques
6.1.Crystal Pulling
6.2.Bridgman Method
6.3.Skull Melting Methods
6.4.Zone Melting
6.5.Verneuil Process
7.Solution Growth Techniques
7.1.General Aspects
7.2.Low-Temperature Methods
7.3.High-Temperature Methods
7.4.Liquid-Phase Epitaxy
7.5.Electrolytic Methods
7.6.Hydrothermal Growth
8.Vapor Growth Techniques
8.1.Sublimation and Evaporation Methods
8.2.Molecular Beam Epitaxy
8.3.Chemical Vapor Transport
8.4.Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth
9.Solid-Phase Growth Techniques
9.1.Strain - Anneal Method
9.2.Methods Not Involving Applied Strain
9.3.Solid-Phase Epitaxy
9.4.Gel Growth
10.Trends

This article summarizes the theory and practice of the growth of single crystals. Today, the growth of crystals having dimensions of some hundred millimeters in diameter and weights over 200 kg under extreme pure conditions is well-matured in industrial scale. The major user of the crystals is the electronics industry.

Growth of crystals demands theoretical knowledge of thermodynamics, kinetics, and transport processes. In practice, some general aspects have to be considered, including choice of raw materials, conditions, methods, and characterization. The industrial and laboratory techniques of crystal growth are discussed. Economical aspects dominate the developments in the future, that is, growing of larger crystals at higher quality to raise yields and device performance. Furthermore, the demand for tighter specifications and increasing range of materials and uses will require more sophisticated methods and an extensive use of automation.