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Enzymes, 1. General

  1. Wolfgang Aehle1,
  2. Richard N. Perham4,
  3. Gerhard Michal2,
  4. Alice J. Caddow3,
  5. Beth Concoby3

Published Online: 15 OCT 2008

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a09_341.pub3

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Aehle, W., Perham, R. N., Michal, G., Caddow, A. J. and Concoby, B. 2008. Enzymes, 1. General. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Genencor International B. V., Leiden, The Netherlands

  2. 2

    Tutzing, Germany

  3. 3

    Genencor International, Inc., Palo Alto, USA

  4. 4

    University of Cambridge, Department of Biochemistry, Cambridge, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2008

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.History
1.2.Enzyme Nomenclature
1.2.1.General Principles of Nomenclature
1.2.2.Classification and Numbering of Enzymes
1.3.Structure of Enzymes
1.3.1.Primary Structure
1.3.2.Three-Dimensional Structure
1.3.3.Quaternary Structure, Folding, and Domains
1.3.4.The Ribozyme
1.4.Enzymes and Molecular Biology
1.4.1.Biosynthesis of Enzymes
1.4.2.Enzymes and DNA
2.Catalytic Activity of Enzymes
2.1.Factors Governing Catalytic Activity
2.1.1.Temperature
2.1.2.Value of pH
2.1.3.Activation
2.1.4.Inhibition
2.1.5.Allostery
2.1.6.Biogenic Regulation of Activity
2.2.Enzyme Assays
2.2.1.Reaction Rate as a Measure of Catalytic Activity
2.2.2.Definition of Units
2.2.3.Absorption Photometry
2.2.4.Fluorometry
2.2.5.Luminometry
2.2.6.Radiometry
2.2.7.Potentiometry
2.2.8.Conductometry
2.2.9.Calorimetry
2.2.10.Polarimetry
2.2.11.Manometry
2.2.12.Viscosimetry
2.2.13.Turbidimetry
2.2.14.Immobilized Enzymes
2.2.15.Electrophoresis
2.3.Quality Evaluation of Enzyme Preparations
2.3.1.Quality Criteria
2.3.2.Specific Activity
2.3.3.Protein Determination
2.3.4.Contaminating Activities
2.3.5.Electrophoretic Purity
2.3.6.High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
2.3.7.Performance Test
2.3.8.Amino Acid Analysis and Protein Sequence Analysis
2.3.9.Stability
2.3.10.Formulation of Enzyme Preparations
2.4.Overview of Industrial Enzyme Applications
3.Enzyme Safety and Regulatory Considerations
3.1.Safe Handling of Enzymes
3.1.1.Possible Health Effects
3.1.2.Control Technology
3.2.Product Regulatory Considerations
3.2.1.Food-Use Enzymes
3.2.2.Feed-Use Enzymes
3.2.3.Industrial-Use Enzymes