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Ethanol

  1. Naim Kosaric1,
  2. Zdravko Duvnjak2,
  3. Adalbert Farkas3,
  4. Hermann Sahm4,
  5. Stephanie Bringer-Meyer5,
  6. Otto Goebel6,
  7. Dieter Mayer7

Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a09_587.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Kosaric, N., Duvnjak, Z., Farkas, A., Sahm, H., Bringer-Meyer, S., Goebel, O. and Mayer, D. 2011. Ethanol. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9, Canada

  2. 2

    University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 9B4, Canada

  3. 3

    Consulting Chemist, Delray Beach, Florida 33483, United States

  4. 4

    Institut für Biotechnologie, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Federal Republic of Germany

  5. 5

    Institut für Biotechnologie, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Federal Republic of Germany

  6. 6

    CORA Engineering, Chur, Switzerland

  7. 7

    Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft, Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Physical Properties
3.Chemical Properties
4.Synthesis
4.1.Direct Catalytic Hydration of Ethylene
4.1.1.Chemistry
4.1.2.Catalysts
4.1.3.Production Process
4.2.Indirect Hydration of Ethylene
4.2.1.Chemistry
4.2.2.Production Process
4.3.Other Methods
4.3.1.Homologation of Methanol
4.3.2.Carbonylation of Methanol and Methyl Acetate
4.3.3.Conversion of Synthesis Gas
4.3.3.1.Synthesis by Heterogeneous Catalysis
4.3.3.2.Synthesis by Homogeneous Catalysis
5.Fermentation
5.1.Production by Yeast
5.1.1.Nutrients
5.1.2.Fermentation Pathways
5.1.3.Fermentation Variables
5.1.4.Direct Fermentation
5.2.Production by Bacteria
5.2.1.Ethanol Tolerance
5.2.2.Fermentation of Glucose by Z. mobilis
5.2.3.Fermentation of Other Sugars by Recombinant Z. mobilis Strains
5.2.4.Ethanol Production by Recombinant Enterobacteria
5.2.5.Comparison of Recombinant Bacterial Strains
5.3.Fermentation Modes
5.3.1.Batch Processes
5.3.2.Continuous Processes
5.3.3.Other Processes
5.4.Raw Materials and Processes
5.4.1.Readily Fermentable Carbohydrates
5.4.2.Starch
5.4.3.Lignocellulosic Materials
5.4.4.Waste Materials and Residues
6.Recovery and Purification
6.1.Distillation
6.1.1.Distillation of Azeotropic Ethanol
6.1.2.Dehydration by Azeotropic Distillation
6.1.3.Motor Fuel Ethanol
6.1.4.Reduction of Energy Costs
6.2.Nondistillative Methods
6.2.1.Solvent Extraction
6.2.2.Carbon Dioxide Extraction
6.2.3.Adsorptive Dehydration
6.2.4.Membrane Technology
6.2.5.Yarn-Filled Column
6.3.Storage and Transportation
7.Comparison of Process Economics for Synthetic and Fermentation Ethanol
7.1.Summary of Cost Analysis for Synthetic and Fermentation Ethanol
7.2.Production Costs of Synthetic Ethanol
7.3.Production Costs of Fermentation Ethanol
8.Analysis
9.Uses
10.Economic Aspects
10.1.Worldwide Production of Synthetic and Fermentation Ethanol
10.2.Major Producers of Fermentation Ethanol from Regenerable Resources
11.Toxicology

Featured Compounds

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  1. 1 - 6
Compound 4
Molecular Weight:708.0202
Molecular Formula:C41H73NO8
InChIKey:AGAUYSZNDYQXOM-HSTQDUNCSA-N
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Compound 3
Molecular Weight:546.8644
Molecular Formula:C35H62O4
InChIKey:JMKBTQYGOKJMBJ-FCRSYBOTSA-N
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Compound 1
Molecular Weight:410.718
Molecular Formula:C30H50
InChIKey:HHXYJYBYNZMZKX-ROQFMIEXSA-N
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Compound 5
Molecular Weight:708.0202
Molecular Formula:C41H73NO8
InChIKey:BDUDNTRWKFDSBE-RSPIEBKISA-N
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Compound 6
Molecular Weight:706.0043
Molecular Formula:C41H71NO8
InChIKey:ZJFDZZJCBWUPFU-HIODTBLTSA-N
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Compound 2
Molecular Weight:428.7333
Molecular Formula:C30H52O
InChIKey:PNJBOAVCVAVRGR-IIGVZCGCSA-N
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