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Fertilizers

  1. Heinrich W. Scherer1,
  2. Konrad Mengel2,
  3. Heinrich Dittmar3,
  4. Manfred Drach4,
  5. Ralf Vosskamp4,
  6. Martin E. Trenkel5,
  7. Reinhold Gutser6,
  8. Günter Steffens7,
  9. Vilmos Czikkely3,
  10. Titus Niedermaier retired8,
  11. Reinhardt Hähndel4,
  12. Hans Prün retired9,
  13. Karl-Heinz Ullrich4,
  14. Hermann Mühlfeld retired10,
  15. Wilfried Werner11,
  16. Günter Kluge12,
  17. Friedrich Kuhlmann13,
  18. Hugo Steinhauser retired14,
  19. Walter Brändlein3,
  20. Karl-Friedrich Kummer4

Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a10_323.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Scherer, H. W., Mengel, K., Dittmar, H., Drach, M., Vosskamp, R., Trenkel, M. E., Gutser, R., Steffens, G., Czikkely, V., Niedermaier, T., Hähndel, R., Prün, H., Ullrich, K.-H., Mühlfeld, H., Werner, W., Kluge, G., Kuhlmann, F., Steinhauser, H., Brändlein, W. and Kummer, K.-F. 2006. Fertilizers. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Agrikulturchemisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany

  2. 2

    Institute for Plant Nutrition, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Giessen, Federal Republic of Germany

  3. 3

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  4. 4

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Limburgerhof, Federal Republic of Germany

  5. 5

    Eusserthal, Federal Republic of Germany

  6. 6

    Lehrstuhl für Pflanzenernährung, Technische Universität München-Weihenstephan, Freising, Federal Republic of Germany

  7. 7

    Landwirtschaftliche Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Oldenburg, Federal Republic of Germany

  8. 8

    formerly BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  9. 9

    formerly BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Limburgerhof, Federal Republic of Germany

  10. 10

    formerly Chemische Fabrik Kalk GmbH, Köln, Federal Republic of Germany

  11. 11

    Agrikulturchemisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany

  12. 12

    Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany

  13. 13

    Institut für Betriebslehre der Agrar- und Ernährungswirtschaft der Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Giessen, Federal Republic of Germany

  14. 14

    formerly Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftslehre des Landbaues, Technische Universität München, Freising, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (28 JAN 2016)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Plant Nutrition and Soil Science
2.1.Plant Nutrients
2.1.1.Definition and Classification
2.1.2.Function of Plant Nutrients
2.2.Soil Science
2.2.1.Soil Classes, Soil Types, and Parent Material
2.2.2.Nutrient Retention in Soils
2.2.3.Soil pH, Buffer Power, and Liming
2.2.4.Soil Water–Plant Relationships
2.2.5.Organic Matter of Soils and Nitrogen Turnover
2.3.Nutrient Availability
2.3.1.Factors and Processes
2.3.2.Determination of Available Plant Nutrients in Soils
2.4.Physiology of Plant Nutrition
2.4.1.Nutrient Uptake and Long-Distance Transport in Plants
2.4.2.Effect of Nutrition on Growth, Yield, and Quality
2.5.Nutrient Balance
2.5.1.Gains and Losses of Plant Nutrients
2.5.2.Alternative Plant Nutrition
3.Standard Fertilizers
3.1.Solid Fertilizers
3.1.1.Straight Fertilizers
3.1.2.Multinutrient Fertilizers
3.1.3.Lime Fertilizers
3.1.4.Magnesium Fertilizers
3.2.Liquid Fertilizers
3.2.1.Nitrogen Liquids
3.2.2.Multinutrient Liquids
3.2.2.1.NP Liquids
3.2.2.2.NPK liquids
3.2.2.3.UAS Liquids
3.2.3.Suspensions
4.Special Fertilizers
4.1.Water-Soluble Nutrient Salts
4.2.Foliar Fertilizers
4.2.1.Production
4.2.2.Application
4.2.3.Combination with Agricultural Pesticides
4.3.Micronutrients
4.3.1.Micronutrient Forms
4.3.2.Production
4.3.3.Commercial Fertilizers
4.3.4.Use
4.4.Slow- and Controlled-Release Fertilizers
4.4.1.Introduction
4.4.2.Urea–Aldehyde Slow-elease Fertilizers
4.4.2.1.Urea–Formaldehyde Condensation Products
4.4.2.2.Other Urea– Aldehyde Condensation Products
4.4.2.3.Further Processing of Urea–Aldehyde Condensates
4.4.3.Other Organic Chemicals
4.4.4.Inorganic Compounds
4.4.5.Coated and Encapsulated Controlled-Release Fertilizers
4.4.5.1.Sulfur-Coated Controlled-Release Fertilizers
4.4.5.2.Sulfur-Coated, Polymer-Encapsulated Controlled-Release Fertilizers
4.4.5.3.Polymer-Encapsulated Controlled-Release Fertilizers
4.4.6.Anti-Float Materials
4.4.7.Controlled-Release Fertilizers on Carriers
4.4.8.Supergranules
4.4.9.Legislation
4.5.Nitrification and Urease Inhibitors
4.5.1.Introduction
4.5.2.Types of Nitrification and Urease Inhibitors
4.5.3.Pyridines
4.5.3.1.Nitrapyrin
4.5.3.2.Other pyridines
4.5.4.Dicyandiamide
4.5.5.Pyrazoles
4.5.5.1.1-Carbamoyl-3-methylpyrazole
4.5.5.2.Outlook
4.5.6.Neem/Neem-Coated Urea
4.5.7.Urease Inhibitors
4.5.8.Environmental Aspects
4.5.9.Legal Requirements
4.6.Organic Fertilizers (Secondary Raw Material Fertilizers)
4.6.1.Fertilizers Based on Peat or Materials of Similar Stability
4.6.2.Fertilizers Based on Waste Materials of Animal Origin
4.6.3.Fertilizers Based on Wastes of Plant Origin
4.6.4.Fertilizers Based on Municipal Waste
4.7.Manure
4.7.1.Composition
4.7.2.Manure Nutrient Efficiency
4.7.3.Environmental Aspects
5.Fertilizer Granulation
5.1.Introduction
5.2.Granulator Feedstocks
5.3.Granulation Equipment
5.3.1.Pug Mill
5.3.2.Drum Granulator
5.3.3.Pan Granulator
5.3.4.The Granulator–Mixer
5.3.5.Roll Presses
5.4.Costs of Agglomeration
5.5.Bulk Blending
5.6.Quality Inspection
5.7.Fertilizer Conditioning
5.8.Environmental Aspects
6.Analysis
6.1.Sampling and Sample Preparation
6.2.Determination of Nitrogen
6.3.Determination of Phosphate
6.4.Determination of Potassium
6.5.Analysis of Calcium, Magnesium, and Trace Elements
7.Synthetic Soil Conditioners
7.1.Foams
7.1.1.Closed-Cell Expandable Polystyrene Foam
7.1.2.Primarily Open-Cell Urea–Formaldehyde Resin Foams
7.2.Colloidal Silicates
7.3.Polymer Dispersions and Polymer Emulsions
7.4.Tensides
8.Storage, Transportation, and Application
8.1.General Storage Requirements
8.2.Application
9.Environmental Aspects of Fertilizer Application
9.1.Nitrogen
9.1.1.Ground Water
9.1.2.Surface Waters
9.1.3.Atmosphere
9.1.4.Biosphere
9.1.5.Pedosphere (Soil)
9.1.6.Countermeasures
9.2.Phosphorus
9.2.1.Eutrophication
9.2.2.Heavy Metals Buildup
10.Legal Aspects
11.Economic Aspects
11.1.Economics of Fertilization
11.1.1.Input–Output Relationships: The Yield Function
11.1.2.Factors Controlling the Optimal Nitrogen Fertilization Level
11.1.3.Factors Influencing the Optimal Nitrogen Fertilization Level
11.1.4.Environmental Aspects of Fertilization
11.2.World Consumption, Production, and Trade
11.3.Future Outlook
11.3.1.Food Situation
11.3.2.Development of Fertilizer Consumption

Fertilizers are products that improve the levels of available plant nutrients and/or the chemical and physical properties of soil. An overview is given over the chemical and physical aspects of plant nutrition uptake and soil properties. The different categories of fertilizers are discussed, and special interest is given on production processes and analyses, including storage and transportation as well as environmental, legal, and economic aspects.