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Fiber Optics

  1. Tsuneo Nakahara1,
  2. Shigeru Tanaka2,
  3. Masayuki Nishimura2

Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a10_433.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Nakahara, T., Tanaka, S. and Nishimura, M. 2006. Fiber Optics. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan

  2. 2

    Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Yokohama R&D Laboratories, Yokohama, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Structure of Optical Fibers
2.1Basic Structure
2.2Multimode Fibers
2.3Single-mode Fibers
2.4Dispersion-modified Fibers
2.4.1Dispersion-shifted Fibers
2.4.2Nonzero Dispersion-shifted Fiber
2.4.3Dispersion-flattened Fibers
2.5Functional Fibers
2.5.1Dispersion-compensating Fibers
2.5.2Rare-earth-doped Fibers
2.5.3Polarization-maintaining Fibers
3.Raw Materials and Production
3.1Silica Fibers
3.1.1Preform Production
3.1.1.1Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD) Method
3.1.1.2Outside Vapor Deposition (OVD) Method
3.1.1.3Vapor-Phase Axial Deposition (VAD) Method
3.1.1.4Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (PCVD) Method
3.1.2Fiber Drawing
3.2.Non-silica Fibers
3.2.1Multicomponent Glass Fibers
3.2.2Plastic Cladding Fibers
3.2.3All-plastic Fibers
3.2.4Infrared Fibers
4.Characterisitics of Optical Fibers
4.1Transmission Loss
4.2Dispersion
4.3Multimode Dispersion
4.3.1Chromatic Dispersion
4.3.2Polarization Mode Dispersion
4.4Nonlinearity
5.Reliability of Optical Fibers
5.1Mechanical Strength
5.2Hydrogen-induced Loss Increase
5.3Radiation-induced Loss Increase
6.Applications of Optical Fibers
6.1Optical Fiber Cables
6.2Fiber Connection Technologies
6.3Optical Fiber Sensors
7.Future Prospects
7.1New Fibers
7.1.1Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF)
7.1.2Holey Fiber (HF)
7.1.3Photonic Band-gap Fiber (PBGF)
7.2New Systems
7.2.1Soliton System
7.2.2Code Division Multiplex (CDM)

The optical fiber is one of the most important key technologies that support the current information technology (IT) era. Optical fibers are now widely used not only as an excellent transmission medium for optical communication but also as optical functional devices, such as optical amplifiers. Both optical fibers and their manufacturing technologies have evolved dramatically toward higher performance and improved productivity. Their applications have also been expanded from optical communication to a variety of fields, such as optical sensors. This article reviews various aspects of optical fibers: structures & materials, fabrication techniques, optical characteristics & reliability, and applications.