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Fungicides, Agricultural

  1. Franz Müller1,
  2. Peter Ackermann2,
  3. Paul Margot2

Published Online: 15 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a12_085.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Müller, F., Ackermann, P. and Margot, P. 2010. Fungicides, Agricultural. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    (formerly Novartis Crop Protection AG), Hergiswil, Switzerland

  2. 2

    Syngenta AG, Basel, Switzerland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2010

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)

Abstract

In the current version of this article the introduction has been expanded by providing a brief historical overview on fungicides and the modern requirements for fungicides to be admitted to the market. The taxonomy of fungi, in the light of recent scientific progress, is discussed briefly, and the main properties of fungi are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to the classification of phytopathogenic fungi and their major representatives relevant to agriculture. The physical and chemical properties of the individual fungicides are complemented with additional data (density, vapor pressure, stability in the environment, etc.). In the toxicology chapter ecological properties of the compounds have been added so that conclusions about the profiles of the fungicides can be made.

1.Introduction
2Phytopathogenic Fungi
2.1Biology of Fungi
2.2Classification of Fungi
2.3Mode of Action
2.4Crop Losses
3Types of Fungicide and Mechanism of Action
4.Methods of Fungicide Application
4.1.Seed Treatment
4.2.Foliage and Fruit Sprays
4.3.Soil Treatment
4.4.Trunk Injections
4.5.Post-harvest Treatment
5.Fungicide Resistance
6.Individual Fungicides
6.1.Fungicidal Antibiotics
6.2.Inorganic Compounds
6.3.Organometallic and Metal–Organic Compounds
6.4.Dithiocarbamates
6.4.1.Metal-Free Dithiocarbamates
6.4.2.Metal-Containing Dithiocarbamates
6.5.Imides
6.6.Amides
6.7.Dicarboximides
6.8.Aliphatic Compounds
6.9.Phenyl-Substituted Compounds
6.10.Organophosphates
6.11.Phosphites
6.12.Benzimidazoles
6.13.Anilides
6.14.Acylamino Acids
6.15.Amides
6.16.Inhibitors of Sterol Biosynthesis
6.16.1.Triazoles
6.16.2.Imidazoles
6.17.Pyridines
6.18.Pyrimidines
6.19.Pyrroles
6.20.Morpholines
6.21.Strobulins
6.22.Carbamates
6.23.Dinitrophenols
6.24.Oxazoles
6.25.Quinolines
6.26.Quinones
6.27.Quinoxalines
6.28.Thiazoles and Thiazolidines
6.29.Thiocarbamates
6.30.Triazines
6.31.Unclassified Fungicides
7.Economic Aspects
8.Toxicology
8.1.Fungicidal Antibiotics
8.2.Inorganic Fungicides
8.3.Organometallic and Metal–Organic Compounds
8.4.Dithiocarbamates
8.4.1.Metal-Free Dithiocarbamates
8.4.2.Metal-Containing Dithiocarbamates
8.5.Imides
8.6.Amides
8.7.Dicarboximides
8.8.Aliphatic Compounds
8.9.Phenyl-Substituted Compounds
8.10.Organophosphate Fungicides
8.11.Phosphites
8.12.Benzimidazoles
8.13.Anilides
8.14.Acylamino Acids
8.15.Amides
8.16.Inhibitors of Sterol Biosynthesis
8.16.1.Triazoles
8.16.2.Imidazoles
8.17.Pyridines
8.18.Pyrimidine Fungicides
8.19.Pyrroles
8.20.Morpholines
8.21.Strobilurins
8.22.Carbamates
8.23.Dinitrophenols
8.24.Oxazoles
8.25.Quinolines
8.26.Quinones
8.27.Quinoxalines
8.28.Thiazoles and Thiazolidines
8.29.Thiocarbamates
8.30.Triazines
8.31.Unclassified Fungicides