Standard Article

Gas Production

  1. Heinz Hiller1,
  2. Rainer Reimert2,
  3. Friedemann Marschner 1,
  4. Hans-Joachim Renner1,
  5. Walter Boll1,
  6. Emil Supp1,
  7. Miron Brejc1,
  8. Waldemar Liebner1,
  9. Georg Schaub2,
  10. Gerhard Hochgesand1,
  11. Christopher Higman1,
  12. Peter Kalteier1,
  13. Wolf-Dieter Müller1,
  14. Manfred Kriebel1,
  15. Holger Schlichting1,
  16. Heiner Tanz3,
  17. Hans-Martin Stönner1,
  18. Helmut Klein1,
  19. Wolfgang Hilsebein1,
  20. Veronika Gronemann1,
  21. Uwe Zwiefelhofer1,
  22. Johannes Albrecht1,
  23. Christopher J. Cowper4,
  24. Hans Erhard Driesen5

Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a12_169.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Hiller, H., Reimert, R., Marschner, F., Renner, H.-J., Boll, W., Supp, E., Brejc, M., Liebner, W., Schaub, G., Hochgesand, G., Higman, C., Kalteier, P., Müller, W.-D., Kriebel, M., Schlichting, H., Tanz, H., Stönner, H.-M., Klein, H., Hilsebein, W., Gronemann, V., Zwiefelhofer, U., Albrecht, J., Cowper, C. J. and Driesen, H. E. 2006. Gas Production. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Lurgi, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

  2. 2

    (formerly Lurgi) Engler-Bunte-Institut der Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

  3. 3

    (formerly Lurgi, Frankfurt), IVTP, Dreieich, Germany

  4. 4

    British Gas, London, United Kingdom

  5. 5

    Engler-Bunte-Institut der Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.Types of Gases; General Overview of Production Methods and Characteristics
1.1.1.Water Gas and Producer Gas
1.1.2.Synthesis Gas and Reduction Gas
1.1.3.Town Gas and Medium-Btu Gas
1.1.4.Biogas and Landfill Gas
1.1.5.Rich Gas and Substitute Natural Gas (SNG)
1.2.Raw Materials for Gasification
1.3.Physicochemical Basis for Gas Production
1.4.Characteristics of the Basic Processes
1.5.Product Gas Treatment
1.5.1.Purification Processes
1.5.2.Conditioning
1.5.3.Byproducts
2.Steam Reforming of Natural Gas and Other Hydrocarbons
2.1.Feedstocks
2.2.Natural Gas and Other Gaseous Hydrocarbons
2.2.1.Principles
2.2.2.Catalysts, Catalyst Poisons, Desulfurization
2.2.3.Tubular Reformers
2.2.4.Production of Fuel Gas and Synthesis Gas
2.2.5.Special Reforming Processes
2.3.Tubular Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons
2.3.1.Commercial Processes
2.3.2.Fuel Gas and Synthesis Gas from Liquid Hydrocarbons
2.3.3.Special Processes
2.4.Prereforming
2.4.1.Principles
2.4.2.Catalysts
2.4.3.Prereforming of Natural Gas
2.4.4.Prereforming of Naphtha; Rich Gas Process
2.5.Autothermal Catalytic Reforming
3.Noncatalytic Partial Oxidation and Special Gasification Processes for Higher-Boiling Hydrocarbons
3.1.Raw Materials
3.2.Partial Oxidation of Hydrocarbons
3.2.1.Principle
3.2.2.Types of Processes
3.2.3.Influencing Raw Gas Composition
3.2.4.Submerged Flame Process
3.3.Hydrogenating Gasification
4.Gas Production from Coal, Wood, and Other Solid Feedstocks
4.1.Fundamentals
4.1.1.Thermodynamics of Chemical Reactions
4.1.2.Kinetics
4.2.Classification and General Characteristics of Gasification Processes
4.2.1.Criteria for Classification
4.2.2.Criteria for Process Assessment
4.2.3.Mathematical Modeling of Gasification Reactors
4.3.Characterization of Solid Feedstocks for Gasification
4.4.Moving- or Fixed-Bed Processes
4.5.Fluidized-Bed Processes
4.6.Entrained-Flow Processes
4.7.Molten-Bath Processes
4.8.Underground Coal Gasification
4.9.Environmental Aspects of Gasification
5.Gas Treating
5.1.Carbon Monoxide Shift Conversion
5.1.1.Fundamentals
5.1.2.Catalysts
5.1.3.Clean Gas Shift Conversion
5.1.4.Raw Gas Conversion
5.1.5.General Comments on Reactor Arrangements
5.1.6.Noncatalytic Quench Conversion
5.2.Carbonyl Sulfide Conversion
5.3.Methanation and Methane Synthesis
5.3.1.Definitions and Applications
5.3.2.Principles of Methanation
5.3.3.Methanation as a Step in Hydrogen Purification
5.3.4.Methanation of Rich Gas
5.3.5.Methane Synthesis from Gases with High Carbon Monoxide Content
5.4.Absorption Processes
5.4.1.General
5.4.2.Processes for Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Compound Absorption
5.4.2.1.Physical Absorption Processes
5.4.2.2.Chemical Absorption Processes
5.4.2.3.Physical - Chemical Absorption Processes
5.4.2.4.Comparison of Various Absorption Processes for Hydrogen Production and IGCC
5.4.3.Liquid-Phase Oxidation Processes
5.4.4.Removal of Gas Impurities of Low Concentration
5.5.Adsorption Processes
5.5.1.Fundamentals
5.5.2.The “Classic” Method
5.5.3.Pressure-Swing Adsorption
5.5.4.Adsorption on Activated Carbon
5.6.Cryogenic Processes
5.6.1.Partial Condensation
5.6.2.Liquid Methane Wash Process
5.6.3.Liquid Nitrogen Wash Process
5.7.Gas Separation by Membranes
5.8.Addition of Inerts or Other Substances
6.Handling of Byproducts
6.1.Aqueous Condensates
6.1.1.Mechanical Treatment
6.1.2.Extraction and Adsorption of Organic Substances
6.1.3.Removal and Recovery of Ammonia and Sulfur
6.1.4.Biological and Final Treatment
6.1.5.Removal of Heavy Metals
6.1.6.Example of an Industrial Application
6.2.Hydrocarbon Condensates
6.2.1.Distillation
6.2.2.Hydrorefining
6.3.Gaseous Byproducts
7.Typical Examples of Complex Gas Production Plants
7.1.Methanol Production from Natural Gas
7.1.1.Methanol Production Based on Catalytic Autothermal Reforming
7.1.2.Comparison of Conventional Steam Reforming and Combined Reforming Processes for Methanol Production
7.2.Hydrogen Production Based on Heavy Residues
7.3.Combined Cycle Power System Based on Coal
7.3.1.Introduction
7.3.2.Fundamentals
7.3.3.Installations and Design Studies
8.Analysis and Quality Control
8.1.Quality Specifications
8.1.1.Combustion Characteristics
8.1.2.Minor Constituents
8.2.Test Methods
8.2.1.Determination of Combustion Characteristics
8.2.1.1.Calorimetry
8.2.1.2.Density
8.2.1.3.Wobbe Index
8.2.2.Analytical Methods
8.2.2.1.General Methods for Determination of Several Components
8.2.2.2.Specific Methods for Determination of Individual Components
8.2.2.3.Methods for Determination of Minor Components
8.2.2.4.Determination of Trace Constituents
9.Acknowledgement