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Glycerol

  1. Ralf Christoph1,
  2. Bernd Schmidt2,
  3. Udo Steinberner3,
  4. Wolfgang Dilla4,
  5. Reetta Karinen5

Published Online: 15 APR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a12_477.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Christoph, R., Schmidt, B., Steinberner, U., Dilla, W. and Karinen, R. 2006. Glycerol. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Cognis Deutschland GmbH, Düsseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany

  2. 2

    Cognis Deutschland GmbH, Düsseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany

  3. 3

    Cognis Deutschland GmbH, Düsseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany

  4. 4

    Solvay Soda Deutschland GmbH, Rheinberg, Federal Republic of Germany

  5. 5

    Helsinki University of Technology, Finland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2006

Abstract

Glycerol is the simplest triol. It can be found in all natural fats and oils as fatty esters and is an important intermediate in the metabolism of living organisms. It is completely miscible with water and many alcohols and also with many heterocyclic compounds. A remarkable and growing source of glycerol is as a byproduct in the production of biodiesel. Glycerol is presently used in a large variety of applications because of its particular combination of chemical and physical properties and because it is physiologically innocuous.

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Physical Properties
3.Chemical Properties
4.Production
4.1.Glycerol from Fats and Oils
4.1.1.Fat Splitting
4.1.2.Pretreatment and Concentration of Crude Glycerol
4.1.3.Purification and Refining
4.2.Synthesis from Propene
4.2.1.Production from Allyl Chloride
4.2.2.Production from Acrolein
4.2.3.Production from Propylene Oxide
4.3.Other Processes
5.Environmental Protection
5.1.Production from Fats and Oils
5.2.Production from Epichlorohydrin
5.3.Environmentally Important Properties of Glycerol
6.Quality Specifications and Analysis
7.Storage and Transportation
8.Derivatives
8.1.Esters
8.2.Chlorohydrins
8.3.Oxidation Products
8.4.tert-Butyl Ethers
9.Use of Glycerol and its Derivatives
9.1.Use in Foods, Cosmetics, and Pharmaceuticals
9.2.Use in Plastics, Resins, and Cellophane
9.3.Use in Tobacco Industry
9.4.Other Applications
9.5.Future Applications
10.Economic Aspects
11.Toxicology