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Guanidine and Derivatives

  1. Thomas Güthner1,
  2. Bernd Mertschenk2,
  3. Bernd Schulz3

Published Online: 15 JUL 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a12_545.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Güthner, T., Mertschenk, B. and Schulz, B. 2006. Guanidine and Derivatives. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Degussa AG, Trostberg, Germany

  2. 2

    Degussa AG, Trostberg, Germany

  3. 3

    Nigu Chemie GmbH, Waldkraiburg, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2006

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Guanidine and Guanidine Salts
1.1.Properties
1.2.Production
1.2.1.Guanidine Salts from Dicyandiamide
1.2.2.Guanidine Salts from Cyanamide
1.2.3.Guanidine Salts from Urea
1.2.4.Other Processes
1.3.Environmental Protection
1.4.Quality Specifications
1.5.Analysis
1.6.Storage and Transportation
1.7.Legal Aspects
1.8.Uses
1.8.1.Pharmaceuticals
1.8.2.Plant Protection
1.8.3.Cosmetics
1.8.4.Textile Impregnation, Flame Retardants, Paper and Resin Manufacture
1.8.5.Propellants and Explosives
1.8.6.Biotechnological Applications of Guanidine Salts
1.9.Economic Aspects
2.Derivatives
2.1.Nitroguanidine
2.2.Aminoguanidine
2.3.Diamino- and Triaminoguanidine
2.4.Organoguanidines
2.4.1.Alkylguanidines
2.4.2.Arylguanidines
2.5.Biguanide and Derivatives
3.Toxicology and Occupational Health

Guanidine salts are made from cyanamide or dicyandiamide by addition of ammonium salts. The highly soluble guanidine hydrochloride is mainly used in pharmaceutical and biotech applications, while guanidine nitrate is used in propellants and explosives.

Nitroguanidine, prepared by nitration of guanidine nitrate, is used for explosives and as a building block for neonicotinoid insecticides. Aminoguanidines, prepared from hydrazines and cyanamide or guanidines, are mainly used for agrochemicals and — due to their high nitrogen content — as a component for propellants and gas generators.

Organoguanidines can be prepared from cyanamides or cyanogen chloride. They are used as building blocks for agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, and as curing agents for plastics and rubbers. Biguanides can be obtained from dicyanamide or cyanoguanidines, they are mainly used as pharmaceuticals and biocides.