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Hydrogen Peroxide

  1. Gustaaf Goor,
  2. Jürgen Glenneberg,
  3. Sylvia Jacobi

Published Online: 15 APR 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a13_443.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Goor, G., Glenneberg, J. and Jacobi, S. 2007. Hydrogen Peroxide. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Degussa AG, Hanau, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2007

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction and Historical Aspects
2.Physical Properties
3.Chemical Properties
4.Production
4.1.Anthraquinone Process (AO Process)
4.1.1.Principles
4.1.2.Process Description
4.1.2.1.Hydrogenation
4.1.2.2.Oxidation
4.1.2.3.Extraction and Drying
4.1.2.4.Working Solution Purification and Regeneration
4.1.2.5.Purification of Crude Hydrogen Peroxide
4.1.2.6.Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide
4.2.2-Propanol Process (Shell Process)
4.3.Electrochemical Processes
4.3.1.Degussa - Weissenstein Process
4.3.2.Münchner Process
4.4.Other Processes
4.4.1.Production from Peroxy Compounds
4.4.2.Production from Hydrogen and Oxygen
4.4.3.Production from Carbon Monoxide, Oxygen, and Water
4.4.4.Production by Autoxidation of Organic Compounds
4.4.5.Production by Cathodic Reduction of Oxygen
5.Storage and Transportation
6.Safety
7.Uses
8.Toxicology, Occupational Health, and Ecotoxicology
9.Environmental Effects
9.1Atmospheric Fate
9.2Aquatic Fate
9.3Biodegradation
9.4Environmental Releases
9.5Environmental Effects

This review deals with chemical and physical properties of hydrogen peroxide and gives detailed descriptions about the various production processes. Today, almost all hydrogen peroxide is produced by organic autoxidation processes, primarily the anthraquinone process. Other aspects in this review are handling, safety and usage of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide occurs naturally. Because of its chemical reactivity, hydrogen peroxide also has toxic properties. The formation and degradation of atmospheric hydrogen peroxide is photochemically mediated. Degradation of aquatic hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by biological material or by transition metals. Toxicity data are collected for various organisms.