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Biocatalysis, 2. Immobilized Biocatalysts

  1. Jiří E. Přenosil1,
  2. Ömer M. Kut2,
  3. Irving J. Dunn3,
  4. Elmar Heinzle4

Published Online: 15 JUL 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a14_001.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Přenosil, J. E., Kut, Ö. M., Dunn, I. J. and Heinzle, E. 2009. Biocatalysis, 2. Immobilized Biocatalysts. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

  2. 2

    Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

  3. 3

    Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

  4. 4

    Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2009

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Immobilization Techniques
2.1.Introduction
2.2.Methods of Enzyme Immobilization
2.2.1.Carriers for Enzyme Immobilization
2.2.2.Methods for Insoluble Enzymes
2.2.2.1.Carrier Binding
2.2.2.2.Cross-Linking
2.2.2.3.Enzyme Copolymerization
2.2.2.4.Entrapment
2.2.3.Methods for Soluble Enzymes
2.3.Methods of Cell Immobilization
2.3.1.Introduction
2.3.2.Cell Supports
2.3.3.Immobilization Techniques
2.3.3.1.Cell Immobilization without a Support
2.3.3.2.Binding of Cells to a Carrier
2.3.3.3.Immobilization of Cells by Entrapment
2.4.Methods of Organelle Immobilization
2.5.Coimmobilization of Biocatalysts
3.Activity and Kinetics of Immobilized Biocatalysts
3.1.Effects of Immobilization on Enzyme Activity
3.2.Kinetics of Immobilized Biocatalysts
3.3.Assay of Immobilized Biocatalysts
4.Mass Transfer in Immobilized Biocatalyst Systems
4.1.External Mass Transfer
4.2.Prediction and Correlation of External Mass-Transfer Coefficients
4.2.1.Catalyst Beds
4.2.2.Particles in an Agitated Tank
4.3.Internal Mass Transfer
5.Design of Immobilized Biocatalyst Reactors
5.1.Batch Stirred-Tank Reactor
5.2.Plug-Flow Tubular Reactor
5.3.Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor
5.4.Packed- or Fixed-Bed Reactors
5.5.Fluidized-Bed Reactors
5.6.Membrane Reactor Systems
5.7.Laboratory Reactors for Kinetic Measurements
5.7.1.Batch and Continuous Tank Reactors
5.7.2.Experimental Differential Recycle Reactor
6.Immobilization Media
6.1.Characteristics of Solid Supports
6.2.Characteristics of Semipermeable Separators
7.Application of Immobilized Biocatalysts
7.1.Analysis
7.2.Immobilized Enzymes in Therapeutic Medicine
7.3.Ethanol Production Using Immobilized Cells
7.4.Industrial Applications of Immobilized Biocatalysts
7.4.1.Production of High-Fructose Corn Syrup
7.4.2.Amino Acid Production
7.4.3.Environmental Applications
8.Economic Aspects
9.Safety, Environmental, and Legal Aspects
9.1.Immobilized Enzymes
9.2.Immobilized Cells