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  1. Franz Oeters1,
  2. Manfred Ottow1,
  3. Dieter Senk2,
  4. Ali Beyzavi3,
  5. Jochen Güntner3,
  6. Hans Bodo Lüngen4,
  7. Manfred Koltermann5,
  8. Andreas Buhr6,
  9. Jun-ichiro Yagi7,
  10. Lothar Formanek3,
  11. Fritz Rose3,
  12. Jürgen Flickenschild8,
  13. Rolf Hauk8,
  14. Rolf Steffen4,
  15. Reiner Skroch3,
  16. Gernot Mayer-Schwinning3,
  17. Heinz-Lothar Bünnagel9,
  18. Hans-Georg Hoff9

Published Online: 15 JAN 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a14_461.pub4

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Oeters, F., Ottow, M., Senk, D., Beyzavi, A., Güntner, J., Lüngen, H. B., Koltermann, M., Buhr, A., Yagi, J.-i., Formanek, L., Rose, F., Flickenschild, J., Hauk, R., Steffen, R., Skroch, R., Mayer-Schwinning, G., Bünnagel, H.-L. and Hoff, H.-G. 2009. Iron. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Berlin, Germany

  2. 2

    RWTH Aachen University, Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, Aachen, Germany

  3. 3

    Outotec GmbH (formerly Lurgi Metallurgie), Oberursel, Germany

  4. 4

    VDEh, Düsseldorf, Germany

  5. 5

    formerly Hoesch Stahl AG, Dortmund, Germany

  6. 6

    Almatis GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany

  7. 7

    Research Institute of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

  8. 8

    Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagen GmbH, Düsseldorf, Germany

  9. 9

    Wirtschaftsvereinigung Stahl, Düsseldorf, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2009

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)


The article contains sections titled:

2.1.Raw and Auxiliary Materials
2.1.1.Ores Deposits of Iron Ore Important Iron-Producing Countries of Iron Ore
2.1.2.Reducing Agents
2.1.3.Refractory Materials
2.2.Thermodynamic Principles
2.2.1.Thermodynamic Principles of the Reduction Reactions
2.2.2.Mass and Heat Exchanges of the Reduction Reaction with Carbon as the Primary Fuel
2.2.3.Thermodynamic Principles of Metal - Slag Reactions
2.3.Kinetic Principles
2.3.1.Reduction in the Solid State Dependence of Individual Processes During Reduction Laws of Complex Reduction Reactions
2.3.2.Reduction in the Liquid State Data for the Calculation of Microkinetics
2.3.3.Kinetics of Post-Combustion Heat Transfer
2.4.Classification of Reduction Processes
2.4.1.Limiting Conditions for the Reduction in Shaft Furnaces
2.4.2.Limiting Conditions for the Reduction in Rotary Kilns
2.4.3.Limiting Conditions for the Reduction in Fluidized Beds
2.4.4.Limiting Conditions for Smelting Reduction Processes
2.5.Blast Furnace Process
2.5.1.Outline of a Blast Furnace Construction
2.5.2.Metallurgy of the Blast Furnace
2.5.3.Effective Utilization of Energy
2.5.4.Blast Furnace Productivity Criteria
2.5.5.Use of Blast Furnace Products
2.5.6.Process Control
2.5.7.Hot-Metal Desulfurization
2.6.Direct Reduction Processes
2.6.1.Shaft Furnace Processes for Direct Reduction
2.6.2.Retort Processes
2.6.3.Fluidized-Bed Processes
2.6.4.Rotary Kiln Processes
2.7.Smelting Reduction Processes
2.7.1.Characteristics of Coals for the Smelting Reduction Processes
2.7.2.Classification of Smelting Reduction Processes and Earlier Developments Using Electrical Energy - Coke-Bed Melter - Gasifiers Iron Bath Reactors
2.7.3.State of the Art of Process Developments - Gasifiers Bath Reactors Hearth Direct Reduction - Submerged Arc Furnace Combinations Developments for Processing of Steelworks Dusts
3.Production of Pure and High-Purity Iron
4.Aspects of Environmental Protection
4.1.Air Pollution Control
4.2.Prevention of Water Pollution
4.3.Noise Reduction
4.4.Waste Management
5.Economic Aspects

The article first evaluates the general features of iron and its naturally occurring oxides. The production processes from ores are described and the producer countries listed. Bedded deposits enriched in iron account for ca. nine-tenths of potential iron reserves. Beneficiation steps include crushing, concentration, flotation, and/or roasting. The blast furnace is the dominant type of equipment for the production of iron metal from iron ore, called the primary resource; secondary resource iron and steel scrap. Part of the heat needed for the production of iron is used to heat up the raw materials to be processed and part of it is required for endothermic chemical reactions. Carbon and hydrocarbon carriers, chiefly in the form of coke, are gasified to the primary reducing agents (CO, H2) in blast furnaces. The use of fossil reducing agents in iron making is subject to careful re-evaluation, and development of new reduction techniques is expected. Gaseous reducing agents other than those formed in the reduction reactor itself are derived from natural gas, oil, or coal. Coal, natural gas, waste plastic, or biomass have come to play an increasingly important role as a source for production of reducing gas.

The world steel industry is the principal consumer of refractories. The refractory-unit consumption for steel production has constantly decreased over the last decades because of new steel-making technologies. The trend towards high-performance refractories is ongoing because of increasingly severe process conditions. The refractory materials used for the blast-furnace process and hot-metal transport are discussed.

Finally, the thermodynamic and kinetic principles of ore reduction are evaluated in detail. This will provide an understanding of the process technology as well as a critical evaluation of the process with respect to cost effectiveness, product quality, and efficient utilization of the reducing agents.