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Lead

  1. Charles A. Sutherland1,
  2. Edward F. Milner2,
  3. Robert C. Kerby3,
  4. Herbert Teindl4,
  5. Albert Melin5,
  6. Hermann M. Bolt6

Published Online: 30 APR 2005

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a15_193.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Sutherland, C. A., Milner, E. F., Kerby, R. C., Teindl, H., Melin, A. and Bolt, H. M. 2005. Lead. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Cominco Ltd., Trail, British Columbia, Canada

  2. 2

    Cominco Ltd., Trail, British Columbia, Canada

  3. 3

    Cominco Ltd., Trail, British Columbia, Canada

  4. 4

    Cominco Ltd., Trail, British Columbia, Canada

  5. 5

    Stolberg Ingenieur Beratung, Neuss, Federal Republic of Germany

  6. 6

    Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 APR 2005

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (30 MAY 2014)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Properties
3.Occurrence
4.Production
4.1.Ore Concentration
4.2.Smelting
4.2.1.Sintering Reduction Process
4.2.1.1.Downdraft Sintering
4.2.1.2.Updraft Sintering
4.2.1.3.Products of Sinter Roasting
4.2.2.Reduction in the Blast Furnace
4.2.2.1.Process Description
4.2.2.2.Lead Blast Furnaces
4.2.2.3.Products of the Lead Blast Furnace
4.2.2.4.Imperial Smelting Process
4.3.Roast Reaction Processes
4.4.Direct Smelting Reduction Processes
4.4.1.Air Flash Smelting
4.4.2.Oxygen Flash Smelting
4.4.2.1.Kivcet Process
4.4.2.2.Boliden Kaldo Process
4.4.2.3.Outokumpu Process
4.4.3.Air - Slag Bath Smelting, the Isasmelt Process
4.4.4.Oxygen - Slag Bath Smelting, QSL Process
4.5.Other Lead Processes
5.Refining of Lead Bullion
5.1.Pyrometallurgical Refining
5.1.1.Decoppering
5.1.2.Removal of Arsenic, Tin, and Antimony
5.1.3.Removal of Noble Metals
5.1.4.Dezincing
5.1.5.Debismuthizing
5.1.6.Final Refining and Casting of Lead
5.1.7.Processing of Intermediate Products of Pyrometallurgical Refining
5.2.Electrolytic Refining of Lead Bullion
6.Recovery of Secondary Lead from Scrap Materials
6.1.Battery Types and Composition
6.2.Battery Breaking and Processing Feed Preparation
6.3.Smelting of Battery Scrap Materials
6.4.Future Trends
7.Uses of Lead
8.Economic Aspects
8.1.Lead Concentrate Schedules
8.2.Lead Statistics
9.Toxicology and Occupational Health
9.1.Sources of Lead Exposure
9.1.1.Drinking Water
9.1.2.Atmosphere
9.1.3.Soil
9.1.4.Diet
9.1.5.Occupational Exposure
9.2.Absorption and Excretion
9.3.Effects
9.3.1.Acute Effects
9.3.2.Hematologic Effects
9.3.3.Neurological Effects
9.3.4.Renal Effects
9.3.5.Reproduction Effects
9.3.6.Carcinogenicity
9.4.Indices for Monitoring Lead Exposure
9.4.1.Lead in Blood
9.4.2.Teeth and Hair
10.Control of Lead Emissions
10.1.In-Plant Lead Emissions
10.2.Ambient Lead Emissions