Standard Article

Leather

  1. Günter Reich

Published Online: 30 APR 2005

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a15_259.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Reich, G. 2005. Leather. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Freiberg/Sachsen, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 APR 2005

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Economic Significance of Leather
3.Unit Operations of Leather Manufacturing
3.1.The Main Processes
3.2.Chemicals
3.3.Reaction Vessels
3.4.Machines
4.The Raw Material: Hides and Skins
4.1.Production of Hides and Skins, Preservation
4.2.Topographical and Histological Structure and Chemical Composition of Animal Hides
5.Structure and Reactivity of Collagen
5.1.Occurrence and Function of Collagen
5.2.From α-Chains to Fiber Network: The Building Blocks of Collagen
5.3.Role of Water in Collagen
5.4.Biosynthesis of Collagen
6.Processes Preparing the Hides and Skins for Tanning
6.1.Soaking
6.2.Liming, Deliming, Bating, Degreasing
6.2.1.The Use of Enzymes in Leather Processing and in Collagen Upgrading in General
7.Tanning Processes
7.1.General Objectives and Results of Tannage
7.2.Chrome Tannage
7.3.Free-of-Chrome (FOC) Tannage
7.4.Vegetable Tannins and Tannage
7.5.Aromatic Syntans
7.6.Other Tannages including Modern Combination Tannages
8.Processes After Tanning
8.1.Retanning
8.2.Dyeing
8.3.Chemical Lubrication (Fatliquoring), Hydrophobization
8.4.Drying
8.5.Mechanical Softening (Staking, Milling)
9.Leather Finishing
10.Ecological Aspects of Leather Manufacturing
10.1.Ecotoxicology and Occupational Hygiene
10.2.Water and Wastewater
10.3.Solid Byproducts and Wastes
10.4.Air Pollution
11.Leather Properties and Testing
12.Leather Substitutes