Standard Article

Lime and Limestone

  1. Martyn Kenny1,
  2. Tony Oates2

Published Online: 15 JAN 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a15_317.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Kenny, M. and Oates, T. 2007. Lime and Limestone. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Buxton Lime Industries, Buxton, Derbyshire, United Kingdom

  2. 2

    Buxton, Derbyshire, United Kingdom

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2007

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Limestone
2.1.Physical and Chemical Properties
2.2.Formation and Occurrence
2.3.Production
2.4.Uses and Specifications
3.Quicklime
3.1.Physical and Chemical Properties
3.2.Raw Materials
3.2.1.Limestone
3.2.2.Fuel
3.3.Production
3.3.1.Calcination
3.3.2.Lime Kilns
3.3.3.Quicklime Processing
3.4.Uses and Specifications
4.Hydrated and Slaked Lime
4.1.Physical and Chemical Properties
4.2.Raw Materials
4.2.1.Raw Materials for Hydrated Lime
4.2.2.Raw Materials for Slaked Lime
4.3.Production
4.3.1.Normal Hydration Process
4.3.2.Pressure Hydration Process
4.3.3.Production of High Surface Area Hydrated Limes
4.3.4.Normal Slaking Process
4.3.5.Production of Ultrafine Milks of Lime
4.4.Uses and Specifications
4.4.1.Uses
4.4.2.Specifications
5.Environmental Protection
5.1.General
5.2.Dust Emission
5.3.Gaseous Emissions
5.4.Noise and Vibration
6.Physical Testing and Chemical Analysis
6.1.Sampling and Sample Preparation
6.2.Physical Testing
6.3.Chemical Testing and Analysis
7.Storage and Transportation
8.Economic Aspects
9.Toxicology and Occupational Health
9.1.Toxicology
9.2.Occupational Health

Limestone (principally calcium carbonate) is a naturally occurring mineral and is found widely throughout the world. It is mainly used for road construction, in the production of concrete and as a structural fill. It is also the principal raw material for the production of cement, quicklime, and numerous other products. Quicklime (principally calcium oxide) is produced by the thermal decomposition of limestone at temperatures above 900°C. About half of the quicklime made is reacted with water to produce calcium hydroxide (in the form of milk or lime putty). Lime products are generally the most readily available and most cost-effective alkaline chemicals and are used in a wide variety of industrial processes. In many countries, the largest use is for the production of iron and steel, followed by building and construction, environmental protection, and the chemical industry. Hydraulic lime is a traditional product used in building, especially as a binder in mortars. The main environmental issues associated with the production of lime and limestone products are emissions to air and energy consumption.