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Membrane Separation Processes, 1. Principles

  1. Heinrich Strathmann

Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a16_187.pub3

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Strathmann, H. 2011. Membrane Separation Processes, 1. Principles. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Institut für chemische Verfahrenstechnik, Universität Stuttgart, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.Historical Development of Membranes and Membrane Processes
1.2.Advantages and Limitations of Membrane Processes
1.3.The Membrane-Based Industry
1.4.The Future of Membrane Science and Technology
2.Fundamentals
2.1.Definition of Terms
2.1.1.Definition of a Membrane and its Function
2.1.2.Definition of the Various Membrane Processes
2.1.3.The Membrane Transport Mechanism
2.2.Materials and Structures of Synthetic Membranes
2.2.1.Symmetric and Asymmetric Membranes
2.2.2.Porous Membranes
2.2.3.Homogeneous Membranes
2.2.4.Ion-Exchange Membranes
2.2.5.Liquid Membranes
2.2.6.Fixed-Carrier Membranes
2.3.Fluxes and Driving Forces in Membrane Separation Processes
2.4.Mathematical Description of Mass Transport in Membrane Processes
2.5.Membrane Separation Capability
2.6.Chemical and Electrochemical Equilibrium in Membrane Processes
2.6.1.Osmotic Equilibrium, Osmotic Pressure, Osmosis, and Reverse Osmosis
2.6.2.Donnan Equilibrium and Donnan Potential
3.Principles
3.1.Principle of Microfiltration
3.2.Principle of Ultrafiltration
3.3.Principle of Reverse Osmosis
3.3.1.Mass Transport in Reverse Osmosis Described by Phenomenological Equations
3.3.2.Description of Mass Transport in Reverse Osmosis by the Solution-Diffusion Model
3.4.Principle of Gas Separation
3.4.1.Gas Separation by Knudsen Diffusion
3.4.2.Gas Transport by the Solution-Diffusion Mechanism in a Polymer Matrix
3.5.Principle of Pervaporation
3.6.Principle of Dialysis
3.6.1.Dialytic Mass Transport of Neutral Components
3.6.2.Dialytic Mass Transport of Electrolytes in a Membrane without Fixed Ions
3.6.3.Dialysis of Electrolytes in Ion-Exchange Membranes
3.7.Principle of Electrodialysis
3.7.1.Electrical Current and Ion Fluxes
3.7.2.Transport Number and Membrane Permselectivity
3.7.3.Membrane Counterion Permselectivity
3.7.4.Water Transport in Electrodialysis
3.8.Electrodialysis with Bipolar Membranes
3.9.Energy Requirements of Membrane Processes