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Milk and Dairy Products

  1. Rolf Jost

Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a16_589.pub3

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Jost, R. 2007. Milk and Dairy Products. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Nestlé Product Technology Center, Konolfingen, Switzerland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Historical Aspects
3.Composition of Milk
3.1.Milk Fat
3.1.1.Composition
3.1.2.Properties of Fat Globules
3.2.Milk Proteins
3.2.1.Major Nitrogen Fractions in Milk
3.2.2.Nomenclature and Properties of Cow's Milk Proteins
3.2.3.Caseins
3.2.4.Whey Proteins
3.2.5.Nonprotein Nitrogen (NPN)
3.3.Lactose
3.4.Minerals
3.5.Vitamins
3.6.Contaminants
4.Physical and Physicochemical Properties of Milk
5.Microbiology of Milk
6.Nutritional Value of Milk
6.1.Milk as a Nutrient Source for Humans
6.2.Health Aspects of Milk Consumption
7.Dairy Technology
7.1.Milk Production and Transport
7.2.Pretreatment in Dairies
7.3.Thermal Treatment
7.3.1.Thermal Processes
7.3.2.Effects of Heat on Milk
7.3.2.1.Effect on Microorganisms
7.3.2.2.Inactivation of Milk Enzymes
7.3.2.3.Heat-Induced Destruction of Nutrients
7.4.Homogenization
7.5.Separation Processes
7.5.1.Microfiltration
7.5.2.Ultrafiltration
7.5.3.Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis
7.5.4.Ion Exchange Processes
7.5.5.Electrodialysis
7.6.Cleaning and Disinfection
7.7.Water Treatment
8.Fluid Milk
8.1.Consumer's Milk
8.1.1.Legal Classes of Consumer's Milk
8.1.2.Characterization According to Heat Treatment
8.1.3.Modified Consumer's Milks
8.1.4.Packaging of Fluid Milks and Milk Products
8.2.Reconstituted and Recombined Milk
9.Milk Products
9.1.Flavored Milk and Milk Beverages
9.2.Evaporated (Condensed) Milk
9.2.1.Technology of Concentration by Evaporation
9.2.2.Unsweetened Condensed Milk
9.2.3.Sweetened Condensed Milk
9.3.Dry Milk Products
9.3.1.Drying Processes
9.3.2.Whole and Skim Milk Powders
9.3.3.Butter and Buttermilk Powders
9.3.4.Whey Powders and Permeates
9.3.5.Milk Protein Powders
9.3.6.Powdered Infant Formulas
9.4.Fermented Milk Products
9.4.1.Legal Definitions
9.4.2.Specific Fermented Products
9.5.Cream
9.5.1.Production
9.5.2.Types of Cream
9.6.Butter
9.6.1.Production
9.6.2.Steps in Buttermaking
9.7.Anhydrous Milk Fat and Butter Oil
9.8.Dairy Spreads
9.9.Dairy Desserts
10.Quality Control
11.Legislation
12.Economic Aspects
13.Acknowledgement