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Natural Gas

  1. Georg Hammer retired1,
  2. Torsten Lübcke2,
  3. Roland Kettner3,
  4. Mark R. Pillarella4,
  5. Herta Recknagel5,
  6. Axel Commichau6,
  7. Hans-Joachim Neumann7,
  8. Barbara Paczynska-Lahme8

Published Online: 15 JUL 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a17_073.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Hammer, G., Lübcke, T., Kettner, R., Pillarella, M. R., Recknagel, H., Commichau, A., Neumann, H.-J. and Paczynska-Lahme, B. 2006. Natural Gas. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    (Mobil Erdgas – Erdöl GmbH), Celle, Federal Republic of Germany

  2. 2

    Mobil Erdgas – Erdöl GmbH, Celle, Federal Republic of Germany

  3. 3

    Mobil Erdgas – Erdöl GmbH, Celle, Federal Republic of Germany

  4. 4

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA, United States

  5. 5

    Ruhrgas AG, Essen, Federal Republic of Germany

  6. 6

    Mobil Europe Gas Inc., The Hague, Netherlands

  7. 7

    German Petroleum Institute, Clausthal – Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany

  8. 8

    Consultant, Osterode, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2006

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.Composition
1.2.Physical Properties
1.3.Combustion Properties
1.3.1.Calorific Value
1.3.2.Wobbe Index
2.Treating
2.1.Objectives of Natural Gas Treating
2.2.Natural Gas Wells and Field Installations
2.3.Processing Steps During Production
2.3.1.Use of Sulfur Solvents
2.3.2.Removal of Mercury
2.3.3.Dehydration
2.3.4.Removal of Hydrocarbons
2.4.Removal of Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Components
2.4.1.Absorption Processes
2.4.1.1.Physical Absorption Process
2.4.1.2.Chemical Absorption Processes
2.4.1.3.Physical - Chemical Absorption Processes
2.4.2.Liquid Oxidation Processes
2.4.3.Adsorption Processes
2.4.3.1.Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide
2.4.3.2.Adsorption of Hydrogen Sulfide
2.5.Membrane Processes
2.6.Cryogenic Natural Gas Separation
2.7.Recovery of Sulfur
2.7.1.Claus Process
2.7.2.Tail-Gas Cleanup Processes
2.7.3.Incineration
2.8.Example of an Integrated Plant
3.Liquefaction
3.1.Physical Properties of LNG
3.2.History
3.3.Production
3.3.1.Baseload Liquefaction Processes
3.3.2.Peak-Shaving Liquefaction Processes
3.4.Storage
3.5.Transportation
3.5.1.Peak Shaving
3.5.2.Baseload
3.6.Safety Aspects
4.Transmission, Storage, and Distribution
4.1.Transportation
4.1.1.Pipeline Transmission
4.1.2.LNG Transportation
4.1.3.Gas Transmission Pipeline Design
4.1.4.Increase in Capacity
4.1.5.Transient Flow in Gas Transmission Systems
4.2.Storage
4.2.1.Determination of Storage Requirements
4.2.2.Storage Systems
4.2.3.Optimized Storage Planning
4.3.Distribution
5.Economic Aspects
6.Testing and Analysis
6.1.Analysis of Natural Gas Composition
6.1.1.Sampling
6.1.2.Gas Chromatography
6.1.3.Analysis of Nonhydrocarbons
6.2.Determination of Physical Properties
6.2.1.Density
6.2.2.Calorific Value
6.2.3.Molecular Mass
6.2.4.Dew Point
7.Acknowledgement

Natural gas is a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons with impurities mainly made of nonhydrocarbons. It occurs in subsurface deposits of many geologic formations. Natural gas is recovered with wells that are drilled into these deposits and is produced at the well site in compositions of considerable variety. The most important method for chemical analysis of natural gas is gas chromatography. The Wobbe index is the most important physical characteristic for the classification of natural gases. Natural gas is primarily employed as clean heating fuel in industry, power plants, commercial installations, and households. The objectives of natural gas treating are the adjustment to the required quality standards and the recovery of byproducts. Removal of the sour gas components hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide is one of the most common aims of natural gas treating. Of the gas traded across international borders, 75 % is shipped by pipelines, and 25 % is carried by liquified natural gas tankers. A large share of internationally traded natural gas is normally sold by producers under long-term contracts of up to 35 years' duration in order to compensate for the heavy front-end investment in production, purification, and transportation facilities.