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Noble Gases

  1. Peter Häussinger1,
  2. Reinhard Glatthaar2,
  3. Wilhelm Rhode3,
  4. Helmut Kick4,
  5. Christian Benkmann5,
  6. Josef Weber6,
  7. Hans-Jörg Wunschel7,
  8. Viktor Stenke8,
  9. Edith Leicht9,
  10. Hermann Stenger10

Published Online: 15 MAR 2001

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a17_485

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Häussinger, P., Glatthaar, R., Rhode, W., Kick, H., Benkmann, C., Weber, J., Wunschel, H.-J., Stenke, V., Leicht, E. and Stenger, H. 2001. Noble Gases. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Linde AG, Process Engineering and Contracting Division, Höllriegelskreuth, Federal Republic of Germany

  2. 2

    Linde AG, Process Engineering and Contracting Division, Höllriegelskreuth, Federal Republic of Germany

  3. 3

    Linde AG, Process Engineering and Contracting Division, Höllriegelskreuth, Federal Republic of Germany

  4. 4

    Linde AG, Process Engineering and Contracting Division, Höllriegelskreuth, Federal Republic of Germany

  5. 5

    Linde AG, Process Engineering and Contracting Division, Höllriegelskreuth, Federal Republic of Germany

  6. 6

    Linde AG, Process Engineering and Contracting Division, Höllriegelskreuth, Federal Republic of Germany

  7. 7

    Linde Technische Gase GmbH, Höllriegelskreuth, Federal Republic of Germany

  8. 8

    Linde Technische Gase GmbH, Höllriegelskreuth, Federal Republic of Germany

  9. 9

    Linde Technische Gase GmbH, Höllriegelskreuth, Federal Republic of Germany

  10. 10

    Linde Technische Gase GmbH, Höllriegelskreuth, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 MAR 2001

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Properties
2.1.Physical Properties
2.1.1.Single-Component Systems
2.1.2.Two- and Multicomponent Systems
2.2.Chemical Properties
2.2.1.Chemistry of Helium, Neon, and Argon
2.2.2.Chemistry of Krypton
2.2.3.Chemistry of Xenon
2.2.4.Radon Compounds
2.2.5.Molecular Structures of Noble Gas Compounds
2.2.6.Noble Gas Clathrate Compounds
3.Occurrence and Availability
3.1.Terrestrial Occurrence
3.2.Occurrence of Radioactive Isotopes
3.3.Lunar and Solar Occurrence
4.Extraction and Isolation
4.1.Isolation From Air
4.1.1.Helium and Neon
4.1.2.Argon
4.1.3.Krypton and Xenon
4.2.Helium Extraction from Natural Gases
4.2.1.Crude Helium Extraction
4.2.1.1.Low-Temperature Fractionation
4.2.1.2.Crude Helium Extraction by Permeation Processes
4.2.2.Purification of Helium
4.2.2.1.Purification of Helium by Pressure Swing Adsorption
4.2.2.2.Other Processes for Purification of Helium
4.2.3.Example of a Complete Process
4.3.Isolation of Argon from Ammonia Purge Gases
5.Liquefaction of Helium
5.1.Processes for Liquefaction of Helium
5.1.1.Recuperative Processes
5.1.2.Regenerative Processes
5.2.Gas Purification for Helium Liquefiers
5.3.Examples of Helium Cryo Plants
5.3.1.Liquefier Using the Claude Process
5.3.2.Liquefier Using the Stirling Process
5.3.3.Helium Cryo Plant Using the Gifford - McMahon (GM) Process
5.4.Process Developments
6.Quality Specifications and Analysis
7.Uses
7.1.Welding
7.2.Illumination
7.3.Other uses
8.Storage and Transportation
9.Economic Aspects