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Nuclear Technology

  1. Eberhard Teuchert1,
  2. Joachim K. Axmann2,
  3. Peter-Jürgen Meyer3,
  4. Hans Hollinger4,
  5. Ivan Kausz3,
  6. Werner Debray3,
  7. Manfred Erve3,
  8. Rolf Riess3,
  9. Rudolf Nieder5,
  10. Klaus Kotthoff6,
  11. Dietrich Budnick3,
  12. Ulrich Dörfler3,
  13. Siegfried Dreyer retired5,
  14. Karl-Ludwig Schillings7,
  15. Viktor P. Luster3,
  16. Claus Essig8,
  17. Günter Koch9,
  18. Siegfried Träger10,
  19. Arthur Max10,
  20. Wolf-Dieter Krebs3,
  21. Wolfgang Stoll retired11,
  22. Werner Heit12,
  23. Ernst Warnecke13,
  24. Peter Brennecke13,
  25. Erich Merz14,
  26. Uwe Schumacher15,
  27. Hans Herold15

Published Online: 15 JAN 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a17_589.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Teuchert, E., Axmann, J. K., Meyer, P.-J., Hollinger, H., Kausz, I., Debray, W., Erve, M., Riess, R., Nieder, R., Kotthoff, K., Budnick, D., Dörfler, U., Dreyer, S., Schillings, K.-L., Luster, V. P., Essig, C., Koch, G., Träger, S., Max, A., Krebs, W.-D., Stoll, W., Heit, W., Warnecke, E., Brennecke, P., Merz, E., Schumacher, U. and Herold, H. 2007. Nuclear Technology. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany

  2. 2

    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institut für Wissenschaftliches Rechnen, Braunschweig, Federal Republic of Germany

  3. 3

    formerly Siemens AG, Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen, Federal Republic of Germany

  4. 4

    Siemens AG, Unternehmensbereich KWU, Offenbach, Federal Republic of Germany

  5. 5

    Interatom GmbH, Bergisch-Gladbach, Federal Republic of Germany

  6. 6

    Gesellschaft für Reaktorsicherheit, Köln, Federal Republic of Germany

  7. 7

    Bergisch-Gladbach, Federal Republic of Germany

  8. 8

    EDF Septen, Dept. Combustible, Villeurbanne Cedex, France

  9. 9

    Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Heisse Chemie, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany

  10. 10

    Nukem GmbH, Alzenau, Federal Republic of Germany

  11. 11

    (Siemens AG Brennelementwerk Hanau), Hanau, Federal Republic of Germany

  12. 12

    Nukem GmbH, Hanau, Federal Republic of Germany

  13. 13

    Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter, Federal Republic of Germany

  14. 14

    Forschungszentrum Jülich, KFA, Jülich, Federal Republic of Germany

  15. 15

    Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Plasmaforschung, Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2007

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)


The article contains sections titled:

1.2.Design of a Nuclear Reactor
1.3.Physical Processes
1.3.1.Structure of Atomic Nuclei
1.3.2.Reactions with Neutrons
1.3.5.Moderation of Neutrons
1.3.6.Neutron Flux
1.3.7.Time Dependence of Neutron Flux
1.3.8.Reaction Rates
1.3.9.Burnup and Control
1.3.10.Fission Products and Actinides
2.Power Reactors, Survey
2.1.Introduction, Scope of Utilization
2.2.Important Technical and Economic Parameters
2.3.Radiation Protection and Safety
2.3.1.Radiological Quantities and Units
2.3.2.Radiation Burden, Radiation Damage, Radiation Safety Rules and Regulations and Medical Radiation Doses Damage and Radiation Safety Regulations
2.3.3.Emission Protection
2.3.4.Industrial Safety Design Principles for Protection Systems Channels, Safety Limits, and Safety Measures Safeguards
2.3.5.Accidents and Analysis Accident
2.3.6.Location Problems
2.4.Survey of Reactor Types
2.4.1.Classification Features Energy Spectrum
2.4.2.Reactor Types Reactors (LWR) Reactors Reactors (D2O - R) Breeder Reactors
2.4.3.Future Developments
3.Thermal Reactors
3.1.Light-Water Reactors
3.1.1.Pressurized-Water Reactors and Control Power Plant Operation Releases to the Environment Pressurized-Water Reactor of the Nuclear Systems and Control Systems Concept Layout Data
3.1.2.Boiling-Water Reactors and Control of the Boiling-Water Reactor Releases to the Environment 1000 Systems Generator Plant System and Control Systems Systems Concept Data Status and Planned Schedule
3.1.3.Safety and Operating Systems and Process Equipment for Light-Water Reactors Control System Control System Coolant Purification and Degasification System Coolant Storage and Treatment System Treatment System Heat Removal and Emergency Cooling System Treatment System
3.1.4.Materials for Light-Water Reactors for the Core Region for Components of the Nuclear Steam Supply System
3.1.5.Water Chemistry of Light-Water Reactors Chemistry of Pressurized-Water Reactors Coolant System System Chemistry of Boiling Water Reactors Corrosion Cracking Fields Integrity Guidlines
3.2.Gas-Cooled Graphite-Moderated Reactors
3.2.2.Carbon Dioxide-Cooled Reactors Reactors Gas-Cooled Reactors Gas-Cooled Reactor Safety Circuit Chemistry Circuit Chemistry Experience
3.2.3.Helium-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors Elements Circuit Materials of High-Temperature Reactors of High-Temperature Reactors of the Primary Coolant in the High-Temperature Reactor Circuits Process Heat
3.3.Graphite-Moderated, Light-Water-Cooled, Pressure Tube Reactors
3.3.1.General Design Characteristics
3.3.2.Reactor Core
3.3.3.Reactor Physics
3.3.4.Instrumentation and Control
3.3.5.Safety Systems Core Cooling System Localization System Power Supply after the Chernobyl Accident
3.3.6.The Chernobyl Accident
3.4.Heavy-Water Reactors
3.4.1.History and Development
3.4.2.Design Features
3.4.3.Types of Heavy-Water Reactors Pressure Tube Reactor Pressure Vessel Reactor Tube Boiling-Water Reactor (Decommissioned)
4.Fast Reactors
4.1.Function and Design
4.1.1.General Aspects
4.1.2.Sodium as Coolant for Fast Reactor Power Plants
4.1.3.Plant Concepts for Fast Reactor Power Stations
4.1.4.Plant Arrangement
4.1.5.Components and Systems
4.2.1.Nuclear Fuels
4.2.2.Cladding and Structural Materials for Fuel Elements
4.2.3.Structural Materials for Components
4.2.4.Application of Materials in Sodium Systems
4.3.Chemical Engineering
4.3.1.Monitoring Sodium Purity Instruments Laboratory Analysis
4.3.2.Control of Cover Gas Purity
4.3.3.Purification of Sodium and Cover Gas
4.3.4.Sodium - Water Reactions
4.3.5.Sodium Fires
4.3.6.Purification and Decontamination of Components
5.Fuel Cycle
5.2.Uranium Production, Conversion, and Enrichment
5.2.1.Occurrence and Classification of Deposits
5.2.3.Output and Demand
5.3.Fabrication of Fuel Elements
5.3.1.Fuel Assemblies for Light-Water Reactors of Fuel Assemblies Material for Nuclear Fuel Processes of Uranium Dioxide Sintered Pellets of Fuel Rods and Fuel Assemblies
5.3.2.Fuel Elements for High-Temperature Reactors Aspects
5.3.3.Fuel Assemblies made from Reprocessed Plutonium of Plutonium Strategies for Mixed-Oxide Thermal Fuel Assemblies for Fast Breeder Fuel Assemblies in Handling Plutonium of Mixed-Oxide Fuel Assemblies Protection and Safety Aspects
5.4.Chemical Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuels
5.4.1.Reprocessing of LWR Fuel Elements Scheme Composition and Purification Requirements Head-End Dissolution Clarification and Make-up Process: Chemistry Process: Flow Sheet Process: Product Purification Process: Extraction Equipment Purification Safety
5.4.2.Research and Development in LWR Fuel Reprocessing of Fast Breeder Reactor Fuels
5.5.Radioactive Waste Management
5.5.1.Classification of Radioactive Waste Classification Classification for Disposal of Waste Types
5.5.2.Conditioning of Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste
5.5.3.Origin and Amount of Radioactive Waste of Radioactive Waste Amount of Unconditioned and Conditioned Radioactive Waste Amounts of Radioactive Waste
5.5.4.Disposal of Radioactive Waste of Waste Disposal Laboratories Repositories Repositories
5.6.Safety Aspects in the Design of Reprocessing and Waste Treatment Plants
5.6.1.Objectives of Protection
5.6.2.Safety Through Multiple Barrier Enclosure
5.6.3.Safety Measures for Protection of Employees
5.6.4.Malfunction and Safety Analysis
5.6.5.Environmental Protection and Radiological Exposure
5.6.6.Radioactive Residual Substances and Waste
5.6.7.Decommissioning and Dismantling
5.6.8.International Coordination of Safety Regulations
6.Nuclear Fusion
6.1.Fusion Physics
6.2.Plasma Confinement and Status of Fusion Research
6.2.1.Magnetic Plasma Confinement of Magnetic Confinement Fusion Development of Magnetic Confinement Toward a Fusion Reactor
6.2.2.Inertial Confinement Fusion
6.3.Fusion Reactors as Energy Sources
6.3.1.Fusion Power Plants
6.3.2.Energy Resources and some Economic Aspects
6.3.3.Environmental Impact and Safety-Related Aspects of Fusion Power

Power reactors serve to supply energy. The heat created in commercial power reactors is used for the production of electrical energy. The economic motivation for building nuclear power plants is the high energy content of the nuclear fuel uranium and its low cost.

The first large-scale nuclear power plant went on-line at Calder Hall (United Kingdom) in 1956. At the beginning of 2005, 441 nuclear power plant units with a total output of 385 854 MWe were in operation worldwide. Since that time worldwide 103 prototype or commercial units have been shut down. In 2005 22 new nuclear power plants with a capacity of 26 102 MWe were under construction.

In this chapter a survey of the important technical and economic parameters of commercial nuclear power reactors is given. Reactors are classified according to characteristics like neutron energy, fuel, enrichment, fissile material, moderator, coolant, and operational cycle. Numbers and electric capacity of nuclear power plants in operation worldwide are shown.

Beside these technical and economic aspects of power reactors their influence on human life and nature by radiation burdens and radiation damage are outlined. Radiological quantities and units are introduced. Radiation protection from nuclear sources and radiation safety rules in Germany, Europe, and the world complete the survey.