Standard Article

Oil Refining

  1. Gunter Alfke1,
  2. Walther W. Irion (retired)2,
  3. Otto S. Neuwirth (retired)3

Published Online: 15 JAN 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a18_051.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Alfke, G., Irion, W. W. and Neuwirth, O. S. 2007. Oil Refining. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Hamburg, Germany

  2. 2

    Formerly Deutsche Shell AG, Hamburg, Germany

  3. 3

    Formerly UK Wesseling, Wesseling, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2007

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.History
1.2.General Aspects of Oil Refining
2.Crude Oils and Products
2.1.Crude Oil Constituents
2.2.Classification of Crude Oils
2.3.Oil Products
2.3.1.Gas Fuels
2.3.2.Liquid Fuels
2.3.3.Nonfuel Applications
3.Oil Refining Processes
3.1.Crude Oil Distillation
3.1.1.Atmospheric Distillation
3.1.2.Vacuum Distillation
3.1.3.Crude Oil Desalting
3.2.Catalytic Cracking (Cat Cracking)
3.3.Hydrotreating
3.3.1.Distillate Hydrotreating
3.3.2.Pyrolysis Gasoline Hydrotreating
3.4.Catalytic Reforming
3.4.1.Introduction
3.4.2.Semiregenerative Reformer
3.4.3.Fully Regenerative Reformer
3.4.4.Continuously Regenerative Reformer
3.5.Hydrocracking
3.6.Residue Conversion Processes
3.6.1.Introduction
3.6.2.Fundamentals of Residue Conversion and Process Options
3.6.3.Hydrogen Addition (“H-in”) Processes
3.6.3.1.Residue Hydrotreating (Demetallization, Desulfurization, Denitrification)
3.6.3.2.Residue Hydrocracking (Hydroconversion)
3.6.4.Carbon Rejection (“C-out”) Processes
3.6.4.1.Thermal Processes (Visbreaking, Coking)
3.6.4.2.Catalytic Processes (Residue Cat Cracking)
3.6.5.Other Processes
3.6.5.1.Extraction of Asphaltenes
3.6.5.2.Partial Oxidation
3.6.6.Process Combinations
3.7.Gasoline Upgrading Processes
3.7.1.Alkylation
3.7.2.Polymerization
3.7.3.Isomerization
3.7.4Production of Ethers (MTBE; ETBE)
3.8.Other Processes
3.8.1.Gas Treating
3.8.2.Sulfur Recovery
3.9.Catalysts
4.Environmental Protection in Oil Refining
4.1.Introduction
4.2.Manufacturing Emissions
4.2.1.Hydrocarbons (HC)
4.2.1.1.Hydrocarbons in Air
4.2.1.2.Hydrocarbons in Wastewater
4.2.1.3.Hydrocarbons in Soil and Groundwater
4.2.2.Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds
4.2.2.1.Sulfur Compounds
4.2.2.2.Nitrogen Compounds
4.2.3.Noise
4.3.Consumer Related Emissions
4.3.1.Transportation Fuels
4.3.1.1.Motor Gasoline
4.3.1.2.Diesel Fuel
4.3.1.3.Marine Fuels
4.3.2.Fuels for Heat Generation
4.4.Cost of Environmental Conservation
5.Integrated Refinery Models
5.1.Trends of Refinery Structures
5.2.Hydroskimming Refinery
5.3.Conversion Concepts
5.3.1.Cat Cracking - Visbreaking Refinery
5.3.2.Hydrocracking - Cat Cracking Refinery
5.3.3.Hydrocracking - Coking Refinery
5.3.4.Integration of Existing Refineries
6.Corrosion and Materials
7.Testing and Analysis
7.1.Crude Oil and Product Properties
7.2.Testing Methods and Standards
8.Storage and Transport