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Paints and Coatings

  1. Dieter Stoye (retired)1,
  2. Werner Funke2,
  3. Lutz Hoppe3,
  4. Jürgen Hasselkus4,
  5. Larry G. Curtis5,
  6. Klaus Hoehne6,
  7. Hans-Joachim Zech1,
  8. Peter Heiling7,
  9. Masaaki Yamabe8,
  10. Klaus Dören1,
  11. Hans Schupp9,
  12. Rolf Küchenmeister6,
  13. Martin Schmitthenner10,
  14. Wolfgang Kremer11,
  15. Wolfhart Wieczorrek6,
  16. Hans Gempeler12,
  17. Wolfgang Schneider12,
  18. James W. White13,
  19. Anthony G. Short13,
  20. Werner J. Blank14,
  21. Leonard J. Calbo14,
  22. Dieter Plath15,
  23. Friedrich Wagner 16,
  24. Werner Haller17,
  25. Karl-Martin Rödder 18,
  26. Hans-Joachim Streitberger19,
  27. Edmund Urbano20,
  28. Richard Laible21,
  29. Bernd D. Meyer22,
  30. Engin Bagda23,
  31. Frederick A. Waite24,
  32. Michel Philips25,
  33. Klaus Köhler11,
  34. Peter Simmendinger12,
  35. Wolfgang Roelle26,
  36. Wilfried Scholz27,
  37. Andreas Valet12,
  38. Mario Slongo12,
  39. Thomas Molz18,
  40. Rainer Hiller28,
  41. Klaus Werner Thomer29,
  42. Klaus Vogel30,
  43. Ulrich Schernau31,
  44. Bernhard Hüser31,
  45. Alfred Brandt32,
  46. Alex Milne33,
  47. Helmut Weyers32,
  48. Wolfgang Plehn34,
  49. Hanns-Adolf Lentze35

Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a18_359.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Stoye, D., Funke, W., Hoppe, L., Hasselkus, J., Curtis, L. G., Hoehne, K., Zech, H.-J., Heiling, P., Yamabe, M., Dören, K., Schupp, H., Küchenmeister, R., Schmitthenner, M., Kremer, W., Wieczorrek, W., Gempeler, H., Schneider, W., White, J. W., Short, A. G., Blank, W. J., Calbo, L. J., Plath, D., Wagner, F., Haller, W., Rödder, K.-M., Streitberger, H.-J., Urbano, E., Laible, R., Meyer, B. D., Bagda, E., Waite, F. A., Philips, M., Köhler, K., Simmendinger, P., Roelle, W., Scholz, W., Valet, A., Slongo, M., Molz, T., Hiller, R., Thomer, K. W., Vogel, K., Schernau, U., Hüser, B., Brandt, A., Milne, A., Weyers, H., Plehn, W. and Lentze, H.-A. 2006. Paints and Coatings. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Hüls AG, Marl, Federal Republic of Germany

  2. 2

    Institut für Technische Chemie, Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany

  3. 3

    Wolff Walsrode AG, Walsrode, Federal Republic of Germany

  4. 4

    Krahn Chemie GmbH, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany

  5. 5

    Eastman Chemical Products, Kingsport, Tennessee, United States

  6. 6

    Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany

  7. 7

    Wacker-Chemie GmbH, Burghausen, Federal Republic of Germany

  8. 8

    Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan

  9. 9

    BASF AG, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  10. 10

    Hüls AG, Witten, Federal Republic of Germany

  11. 11

    Bayer AG, Krefeld-Uerdingen, Federal Republic of Germany

  12. 12

    Ciba-Geigy AG, Basel, Switzerland

  13. 13

    Dow Corning Ltd., Barry, South Glamorgan, CF6 7YL, United Kingdom

  14. 14

    King Industries, Norwalk, Connecticut, United States

  15. 15

    Hoechst AG, Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany

  16. 16

    Sika-Chemie, Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany

  17. 17

    Henkel KGaA, Düsseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany

  18. 18

    Hüls AG, Troisdorf, Federal Republic of Germany

  19. 19

    BASF Corporation, Southfield, Michigan, United States

  20. 20

    Vianova Kunstharz AG, Graz, Austria

  21. 21

    Akzo Coatings GmbH, Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany

  22. 22

    VP Resicoat GmbH, Reutlingen, Federal Republic of Germany

  23. 23

    Deutsche Amphibolin-Werke, Ober-Ramstadt, Federal Republic of Germany

  24. 24

    ICI Paints, Slough, Berkshire SL2 5DS, United Kingdom

  25. 25

    Radcure Specialties, Drogenbos, Belgium

  26. 26

    Bassermann & Co., Mannheim, Federal Republic of Germany

  27. 27

    BYK-Chemie GmbH, Wesel, Federal Republic of Germany

  28. 28

    BASF Lacke + Farben AG, Münster-Hiltrup, Federal Republic of Germany

  29. 29

    Opel, Bochum, Federal Republic of Germany

  30. 30

    Herberts GmbH, Wuppertal, Federal Republic of Germany

  31. 31

    BASF Lacke + Farben AG, Münster, Federal Republic of Germany

  32. 32

    ICI Lacke Farben GmbH, Hilden, Federal Republic of Germany

  33. 33

    Courtaulds Coatings Ltd., Felling, Gateshead NE10 0JY, United Kingdom

  34. 34

    Umweltbundesamt, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany

  35. 35

    CEPE, Brussels, Belgium

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 APR 2010)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.Fundamental Concepts
1.2.Historical Development
1.3.Composition of Paints
1.3.1.Binders and Resins
1.3.2.Plasticizers
1.3.3.Pigments and Extenders
1.3.4.Paint Additives
1.3.5.Solvents
1.4.Paint Application
1.5.Drying and Film Formation
1.6.Multicoat Systems
1.7.Economic Aspects
1.8.Future Outlook
2.Types of Paints and Coatings (Binders)
2.1.Oil-Based Coatings
2.2.Cellulose-Based Coatings
2.2.1.Nitrocellulose Lacquers
2.2.1.1.Raw Materials
2.2.1.2.Application and Uses
2.2.2.Organic Cellulose Ester Coatings
2.2.2.1.Cellulose Acetate Butyrate
2.2.2.2.Cellulose Acetate Propionate
2.3.Chlorinated Rubber Coatings
2.3.1.Starting Products
2.3.2.Chlorinated Rubber Paints
2.3.3.Chlorinated Rubber Combination Paints
2.4.Vinyl Coatings
2.4.1.General Properties
2.4.2.Coatings Based on Polyolefins and Polyolefin Derivatives
2.4.3.Poly(Vinyl Halides) and Vinyl Halide Copolymers
2.4.3.1.Poly(Vinyl Chloride) and Vinyl Chloride Copolymers
2.4.3.2.Vinylidene Chloride Copolymers
2.4.3.3.Fluoropolymer Coatings
2.4.4.Poly(Vinyl Esters)
2.4.4.1.Solid Resins
2.4.4.2.Dispersions
2.4.5.Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)
2.4.6.Poly(Vinyl Acetals)
2.4.7.Poly(Vinyl Ethers)
2.4.8.Polystyrene and Styrene Copolymers
2.5.Acrylic Coatings
2.6.Alkyd Coatings
2.6.1.Alkyd Resin Binders and Uses
2.6.2.Additional Raw Materials
2.6.3.Production
2.6.4.Environmental and Health Protection Measures
2.7.Saturated Polyester Coatings
2.7.1.Properties
2.7.2.Production of Polyester Resins and Paints
2.7.3.Cross-Linking of Polyester Resins
2.7.4.Uses
2.8.Unsaturated Polyester Coatings
2.8.1.Unsaturated Polyester Binders
2.8.2.Other Raw Materials
2.8.3.Production, Properties, and Uses
2.8.4.Transportation and Handling
2.9.Polyurethane Coatings
2.9.1.Raw Materials
2.9.2.Polyurethane Systems
2.9.2.1.One-Pack Systems
2.9.2.2.Two-Pack Systems
2.9.3.Properties and Uses
2.10.Epoxy Coatings
2.10.1.Epoxy Resin Types
2.10.2.Curing Agents
2.10.3.Chemically Modified Epoxy Resins
2.10.4.Uses
2.10.4.1.Curing at Ambient Temperature
2.10.4.2.Curing at Elevated Temperature
2.10.4.3.Radiation Curing
2.10.4.4.Occupational Health
2.11.Silicone Coatings
2.12.Urea, Benzoguanamine, and Melamine Resins for Coatings
2.13.Phenolic Resins for Coatings
2.13.1.Resols
2.13.2.Novolacs
2.13.3.Modified Phenolic Resins
2.14.Asphalt, Bitumen, and Pitch Coatings
2.14.1.Asphalt and Asphalt Combination Coatings
2.14.2.Bitumen Coatings
2.14.3.Bitumen Combination Coatings
2.14.4.Pitch Coatings
2.14.5.Pitch Combination Coatings
2.15.Silicate Coatings
2.15.1.Water Glass Coatings
2.15.2.Alkyl Silicates
3.Paint Systems
3.1.Solventborne Paints
3.1.1.General Information
3.1.2.Properties and Raw Materials
3.1.3.Environmental Protection and Application Technology
3.2.Solvent-Free and Low-Solvent (High-Solids) Paints
3.2.1.Principles
3.2.2.Production and Uses
3.3.Waterborne Paints
3.3.1.Properties
3.3.2.Production and Application
3.3.3.Uses and Environmental Aspects
3.4.Coating Powders
3.4.1.Introduction and Economic Importance
3.4.2.Production
3.4.3.Properties
3.4.4.Testing
3.4.5.Storage and Transportation
3.4.6.Environmental Aspects and Safety
3.4.7.Uses
3.5.Waterborne Dispersion Paints (Emulsion Paints)
3.6.Nonaqueous Dispersion Paints
3.7.Radiation-Curing Systems
3.7.1.Introduction
3.7.2.Radiation-Curable Systems Based on Acrylates
3.7.3.Equipment
3.7.4.Fields of Application
3.8.Electrodeposition Paints
4.Pigments and Extenders
4.1.Inorganic Pigments
4.2.Organic Pigments
4.3.Extenders
4.3.1.Introduction
4.3.2.Properties
4.3.3.Modification of Extenders
5.Paint Additives
5.1.Defoamers
5.2.Wetting and Dispersing Additives
5.3.Surface Additives
5.4.Driers and Catalysts
5.5.Preservatives
5.6.Rheology Additives
5.7.Light Stabilizers
5.8.Corrosion Inhibitors
5.9.Use and Testing of Additives
6.Paint Removal
6.1.Paint Removal from Metals
6.1.1.Chemical Paint Removal
6.1.2.Thermal Paint Removal
6.1.3.Mechanical and Low-Temperature Paint Removal
6.2.Paint Removal from Wood and Mineral Substrates
7.Production Technology
7.1.Principles
7.2.Paint-Making Processes
7.2.1.Varnishes
7.2.2.Paints
7.2.3.Powder Coatings
7.3.Apparatus
7.3.1.Mixers
7.3.2.Dissolvers
7.3.3.Kneaders and Kneader Mixers
7.3.4.Media Mills
7.3.5.Roller Mills
7.3.6.Auxiliary Equipment
8.Paint Application
8.1.Types of Substrate
8.2.Pretreatment of Substrate Surfaces
8.2.1.Pretreatment of Metallic Substrates
8.2.1.1.Cleaning
8.2.1.2.Degreasing
8.2.1.3.Formation of Conversion Layers
8.2.2.Pretreatment of Plastics
8.2.3.Pretreatment of Wood
8.3.Application Methods
8.3.1.Spraying (Atomization)
8.3.2.Electrostatic Atomization
8.3.3.Dipping
8.3.4.Miscellaneous Wet Paint Coating Methods
8.3.5.Powder Coating
8.3.6.Coating of Plastics and Wood
8.4.Paint Curing Methods
9.Properties and Testing
9.1.Properties of Coating Materials
9.2.Properties of Coatings
9.2.1.Films for Testing
9.2.2.Optical Properties
9.2.3.Mechanical Properties
9.2.4.Chemical Properties
9.2.5.Weathering Tests
10.Analysis
10.1.Analysis of Coating Materials
10.1.1.Separation of the Coating Material into Individual Components
10.1.2.Analysis of Binders
10.1.3.Analysis of Pigments and Extenders
10.1.4.Analysis of Solvents
10.1.5.Analysis of Additives
10.2.Analysis of Coatings
11.Uses
11.1.Coating Systems for Corrosion Protection of Large Steel Constructions (Heavy-Duty Coatings)
11.2.Automotive Paints
11.2.1.Car Body Paints
11.2.2.Other Automotive Coatings
11.3.Paints Used for Commercial Transport Vehicles
11.3.1.Railroad Rolling Stock
11.3.2.Freight Containers
11.3.3.Road Transport Vehicles
11.3.4.Aircraft Coatings
11.4.Marine Coatings
11.4.1.Substrate, Surface Preparation, and Priming
11.4.2.Ship Paint Systems
11.4.3.Fouling and Antifouling
11.5.Coil Coating
11.6.Coatings for Domestic Appliances
11.7.Coatings for Packaging (Can Coatings)
11.8.Furniture Coatings
11.9.Coatings for Buildings
11.9.1.Exterior-Use Coatings
11.9.2.Interior-Use Coatings
12.Environmental Protection and Toxicology
12.1.Clean Air Measures
12.2.Wastewater
12.3.Solid Residues and Waste
12.4.Toxicology
13.Economic Aspects