Standard Article

Phthalic Acid and Derivatives

  1. Peter M. Lorz1,
  2. Friedrich K. Towae1,
  3. Walter Enke1,
  4. Rudolf Jäckh1,
  5. Naresh Bhargava2,
  6. Wolfgang Hillesheim3

Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a20_181.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Lorz, P. M., Towae, F. K., Enke, W., Jäckh, R., Bhargava, N. and Hillesheim, W. 2007. Phthalic Acid and Derivatives. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    BASF AG, Ludwigshafen, Germany

  2. 2

    BASF Canada Inc., Cornwall, Ontario, Canada

  3. 3

    GUBDH Consultancy, Schwetzingen, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Phthalic Acid
2.Phthalic Anhydride
2.1.Physical Properties
2.2.Chemical Properties
2.3.Resources and Raw Materials
2.4.Production
2.4.1.Gas-Phase Oxidation
2.4.1.1.Catalyst and Reaction Mechanism
2.4.1.2.Apparatus and Important Process Steps in the Gas-Phase Oxidation of o-Xylene
2.4.2.Fluidized-Bed Oxidation
2.4.3.Liquid-Phase Oxidation of o-Xylene
2.5.Environmental Protection
2.6.Quality Specifications and Analysis
2.7.Economic Aspects
2.8.Storage and Transportation
2.9.Uses
3.Phthalimide
3.1.Properties
3.2.Production
3.2.1.Production from Phthalic Anhydride and Ammonia
3.2.2.Production from Phthalic Anhydride and Urea
3.2.3.Production from o-Xylene
3.3.Uses
4.Phthalonitrile
4.1.Properties
4.2.Production
4.2.1.Production from o-Xylene
4.2.2.Production from Phthalic Acid Derivatives
4.3.Uses
5.Phthalates
5.1.Physical and Chemical Properties
5.2.Raw Materials
5.3.Production
5.4.Environmental Protection
5.5.Quality Specifications
5.6.Storage and Transportation
5.7.Uses
5.8.Economic Aspects
6.Toxicology
6.1.Use of and Exposure to Phthalic Acid and Derivatives
6.2.Toxicological Profiles
6.2.1Phthalic Acid
6.2.2Phthalic Anhydride
6.2.3Phthalimide
6.2.4.Phthalonitrile
6.2.5.Phthalate Esters
6.2.5.1.Metabolism and Toxicokinetics
6.2.5.2.Acute Toxicity
6.2.5.3.Irritation and Sensitizing Potential
6.2.5.4.Repeated DEHP Dosing
6.2.5.5.Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity
6.2.5.6.Carcinogenicity
6.2.5.7.Reproductive Toxicity
6.2.5.8.Effects of Phthalate Esters by Groups
6.3Risk Assessment
6.3.1Biomonitoring and Human Exposure to Phthalate Esters
6.3.2Carcinogenicity
6.3.3Toxicity to Reproduction
6.4Risk Management