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Pigments, Inorganic

  1. Hans G. Völz1,
  2. Jürgen Kischkewitz2,
  3. Peter Woditsch2,
  4. Axel Westerhaus2,
  5. Wolf-Dieter Griebler3,
  6. Marcel De Liedekerke4,
  7. Gunter Buxbaum5,
  8. Helmut Printzen2,
  9. Manfred Mansmann2,
  10. Dieter Räde2,
  11. Gerhard Trenczek2,
  12. Volker Wilhelm2,
  13. Stefanie Schwarz6,
  14. Henning Wienand6,
  15. Jörg Adel6,
  16. Gerhard Adrian7,
  17. Karl Brandt8,
  18. William B. Cork9,
  19. Heinrich Winkeler10,
  20. Wielfried Mayer10,
  21. Klaus Schneider11,
  22. Lutz Leitner2,
  23. Hendrik Kathrein2,
  24. Ekkehard Schwab6,
  25. Helmut Jakusch6,
  26. Manfred Ohlinger6,
  27. Ronald Veitch6,
  28. Günter Etzrodt12,
  29. Gerhard Pfaff13,
  30. Klaus-Dieter Franz13,
  31. Ralf Emmert14,
  32. Katsuhisa Nitta15,
  33. Robert Besold16,
  34. Harald Gaedcke17

Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a20_243.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Völz, H. G., Kischkewitz, J., Woditsch, P., Westerhaus, A., Griebler, W.-D., De Liedekerke, M., Buxbaum, G., Printzen, H., Mansmann, M., Räde, D., Trenczek, G., Wilhelm, V., Schwarz, S., Wienand, H., Adel, J., Adrian, G., Brandt, K., Cork, W. B., Winkeler, H., Mayer, W., Schneider, K., Leitner, L., Kathrein, H., Schwab, E., Jakusch, H., Ohlinger, M., Veitch, R., Etzrodt, G., Pfaff, G., Franz, K.-D., Emmert, R., Nitta, K., Besold, R. and Gaedcke, H. 2006. Pigments, Inorganic. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Krefeld, Germany

  2. 2

    Bayer AG, Krefeld, Germany

  3. 3

    Sachtleben Chemie GmbH, Duisburg, Germany

  4. 4

    Zinkwit Nederland bv, Eijsden, The Netherlands

  5. 5

    Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany

  6. 6

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Germany

  7. 7

    Langelsheim, Germany

  8. 8

    Dr. Hans Heubach GmbH & Co. KG, Langelsheim, Germany

  9. 9

    Reckitt's Colours Ltd., Hull, United Kingdom

  10. 10

    Degussa AG, Hanau, Germany

  11. 11

    Degussa AG, Frankfurt/Main, Germany

  12. 12

    BASF Lacke+Farben AG, Besigheim, Germany

  13. 13

    E. Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany

  14. 14

    E. M. Industries, Hawthorne, New York, United States

  15. 15

    Merck Japan, 970/04 Onahama, Japan

  16. 16

    Eckart-Werke, Fürth, Germany

  17. 17

    BASF Lacke+Farben AG, Stuttgart, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2009)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.General Aspects
1.2.General Chemical and Physical Properties
1.2.1.Fundamental Aspects
1.2.2.Methods of Determination
1.3.Color Properties
1.3.1.Fundamental Aspects
1.3.2.Color Measurement
1.3.3.Tinting Strength, Lightening Power, and Scattering Power
1.3.4.Hiding Power and Transparency
1.4.Stability Towards Light, Weather, Heat, and Chemicals
1.4.1.Fundamental Aspects
1.4.2.Test Methods
1.4.2.1.Light Stability
1.4.2.2.Weather Resistance
1.4.2.3.Heat Stability
1.4.2.4.Fastness to Chemicals
1.5.Behavior of Pigments in Binders
1.5.1.Fundamental Aspects
1.5.2.Test Methods
1.5.2.1.Pigment - Binder Interaction
1.5.2.2.Dispersing Behavior in Paint Systems
1.5.2.3.Miscellaneous Pigment - Binder Systems
2.White Pigments
2.1.Titanium Dioxide
2.1.1.Properties
2.1.2.Raw Materials
2.1.2.1.Natural Raw Materials
2.1.2.2.Synthetic Raw Materials
2.1.3.Production
2.1.3.1.Sulfate Method
2.1.3.2.The Chloride Process
2.1.3.3.Pigment Quality
2.1.3.4.Aftertreatment
2.1.3.5.Problems with Aqueous and Gaseous Waste
2.1.4.Economic Aspects
2.1.5.Pigment Properties
2.1.6.Analysis
2.1.7.Uses of Pigmentary TiO2
2.1.8.Uses of Nonpigmentary TiO2
2.1.9.Toxicology
2.2.Zinc Sulfide Pigments
2.2.1.Properties
2.2.2.Production
2.2.3.Commercial Products
2.2.4.Uses
2.2.5.Economic Aspects
2.2.6.Toxicology
2.3.Zinc Oxide (Zinc White)
2.3.1.Introduction
2.3.2.Properties
2.3.3.Production
2.3.4.Quality Specifications
2.3.5.Uses
2.3.6.Economic Aspects
2.3.7.Toxicology and Occupational Health
3.Colored Pigments
3.1.Oxides and Hydroxides
3.1.1.Iron Oxide Pigments
3.1.1.1.Natural Iron Oxide Pigments
3.1.1.2.Synthetic Iron Oxide Pigments
3.1.1.3.Toxicology and Environmental Aspects
3.1.1.4.Quality
3.1.1.5.Uses
3.1.1.6.Economic Aspects
3.1.2.Chromium Oxide Pigments
3.1.2.1.Properties
3.1.2.2.Production
3.1.2.3.Quality Specifications and Analysis
3.1.2.4.Storage and Transportation
3.1.2.5.Uses
3.1.2.6.Economic Aspects
3.1.2.7.Toxicology and Occupational Health
3.1.3.Mixed Metal Oxide Pigments
3.1.3.1.Properties
3.1.3.2.Production
3.1.3.3.Quality Specifications and Analysis
3.1.3.4.Storage and Transportation
3.1.3.5.Legal Aspects
3.1.3.6.Uses
3.1.3.7.Economic Aspects
3.1.3.8.Toxicology and Occupational Health
3.2.Cadmium Pigments
3.2.1.Cadmium Sulfide
3.2.2.Cadmium Yellow
3.2.3.Cadmium Sulfoselenide (Cadmium Red)
3.2.4.Cadmium Mercury Sulfide (Cadmium Cinnabar)
3.2.5.Properties and Uses
3.2.6.Quality Specifications
3.2.7.Economic Aspects
3.2.8.Toxicology and Environmental Protection
3.3.Bismuth Pigments
3.3.1.Properties
3.3.2.Production
3.3.3.Uses
3.3.4.Toxicology
3.4.Chromate Pigments
3.4.1.Chrome Yellow
3.4.2.Molybdate Red and Molybdate Orange
3.4.3.Chrome Orange
3.4.4.Chrome Green and Fast Chrome Green
3.4.5.Toxicology and Occupational Health
3.5.Ultramarine Pigments
3.5.1.Chemical Structure
3.5.2.Properties
3.5.3.Production
3.5.4.Uses
3.5.5.Toxicity and Environmental Aspects
3.5.6.Economic Aspects
3.6.Iron Blue Pigments
3.6.1.Structure
3.6.2.Production
3.6.3.Properties
3.6.4.Uses
3.6.5.Toxicology and Environmental Aspects
4.Specialty Pigments
4.1.Magnetic Pigments
4.1.1.Iron Oxide Pigments
4.1.2.Cobalt-Containing Iron Oxide Pigments
4.1.3.Chromium Dioxide
4.1.4.Metallic Iron Pigments
4.1.5.Barium Ferrite Pigments
4.2.Anticorrosive Pigments
4.2.1.Principles
4.2.2.Phosphate Pigments
4.2.2.1.Zinc Phosphate
4.2.2.2.Aluminum Phosphate
4.2.2.3.Chromium Phosphate
4.2.2.4.New Pigments Based on Metal Phosphates
4.2.2.5.Multiphase Phosphate Pigments
4.2.3.Other Phosphorus-Containing Pigments
4.2.4.Borosilicate Pigments
4.2.5.Borate Pigments
4.2.6.Chromate Pigments
4.2.7.Molybdate Pigments
4.2.8.Lead and Zinc Cyanamides
4.2.9.Ion-Exchange Pigments
4.2.10.Metal Oxide Pigments
4.2.10.1.Red Lead
4.2.10.2.Calcium Plumbate
4.2.10.3.Zinc and Calcium Ferrites
4.2.10.4.Zinc Oxide
4.2.11.Powdered Metal Pigments
4.2.11.1.Zinc Dust
4.2.11.2.Lead Powder
4.2.12.Flake Pigments
4.2.13.Organic Pigments
4.2.14.Toxicology
4.3.Luster Pigments
4.3.1.Nacreous and Interference Pigments
4.3.1.1.Optical Principles
4.3.1.2.Natural Pearl Essence
4.3.1.3.Basic Lead Carbonate
4.3.1.4.Bismuth Oxychloride
4.3.1.5.Metal Oxide - Mica Pigments
4.3.1.6.New Developments
4.3.1.7.Uses
4.3.2.Metal Effect Pigments
4.4.Transparent Pigments
4.4.1.Transparent Iron Oxides
4.4.2.Transparent Iron Blue
4.4.3.Transparent Cobalt Blue and Green
4.4.4.Transparent Titanium Dioxide
4.4.5.Transparent Zinc Oxide