Standard Article


  1. David F. Cadogan1,
  2. Christopher J. Howick2

Published Online: 15 JUN 2000

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a20_439

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Cadogan, D. F. and Howick, C. J. 2000. Plasticizers. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    ICI Chemicals and Polymers, Runcorn, Cheshire, United Kingdom

  2. 2

    ICI Chemicals and Polymers, Runcorn, Cheshire, United Kingdom

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUN 2000


The article contains sections titled:

1.2.Types of Plasticization
1.3.Types of Plasticizer
2.Plasticizers in Common Use
2.1.Market Overview
2.2.Phthalate Esters
2.3.Adipate Esters
2.4.Trimellitate Esters
2.5.Phosphate Esters
2.6.Sebacate and Azelate Esters
2.7.Polyester Plasticizers
2.8.Sulfonate Esters
2.9.Specialty Phthalate Esters
2.10.Secondary Plasticizers
3.Mechanism of Plasticizer Action
3.1.The Lubricity Theory
3.2.The Gel Theory
3.3.The Free-Volume Theory
3.4.Solvation–Desolvation Equilibrium
3.5.Generalized Structure Theories
3.6.Specific Interactions and Interaction Parameters
4.Plasticized PVC
4.1.Applications Technology
4.1.1.Suspension PVC
4.1.2.Emulsion PVC
4.2.Effect of Plasticizer Choice on the Properties of Flexible PVC
4.2.1.Plasticizer Efficiency
4.2.2.High-Temperature Performance
4.2.3.Low-Temperature Performance
4.2.4.Gelation Properties
4.2.5.Migration and Extraction
4.2.6.Plastisol Viscosity and Viscosity Ageing
4.2.7.Windscreen Fogging
5.Plasticization of Polymers Other Than PVC
5.1.Requirements for Plasticization
5.2.Plasticization of Other Polymers
6.Toxicology and Environmental Aspects
6.1.Toxicity Studies on Plasticizer Esters
6.2.Plasticizers in the Environment
6.3.Storage and Handling