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Plastics, General Survey

  1. Hans-Georg Elias

Published Online: 15 JUN 2000

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a20_543

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Elias, H.-G. 2000. Plastics, General Survey. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Michigan Molecular Institute, Midland, MI 48 640, United States

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUN 2000

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.Polymers
1.1.1.Fundamental Terms
1.1.2.Nomenclature
1.2.Plastics
1.2.1.Fundamental Terms
1.2.2.Designations
1.3.History of Plastics
1.4.Economic Importance
2.Molecular Structure of Polymers
2.1.Constitution
2.1.1.Homopolymers
2.1.2.Copolymers
2.1.3.Branched Polymers
2.1.4.Ordered Chain Assemblies
2.1.5.Unordered Networks
2.2.Molar Masses and Molar Mass Distributions
2.2.1.Molar Mass Average
2.2.2.Determination of Molar Mass
2.2.3.Molar Mass Distributions
2.2.4.Determination of Molar Mass Distributions
2.3.Configurations
2.4.Conformations
2.4.1.Microconformations
2.4.2.Conformations in Ideal Polymer Crystals
2.4.3.Conformations in Polymer Solutions
2.4.4.Unperturbed Coils
2.4.5.Perturbed Coils
2.4.6.Wormlike Chains
3.Polymer Manufacture
3.1.Raw Materials
3.1.1.Wood
3.1.2.Coal
3.1.3.Natural Gas
3.1.4.Petroleum
3.1.5.Other Natural Raw Materials
3.2.Polymer Syntheses: Overview
3.2.1.Classifications
3.2.2.Functionality
3.2.3.Cyclopolymerizations
3.3.Chain Polymerizations and Polyeliminations
3.3.1.Thermodynamics
3.3.2.Free-Radical Polymerizations
3.3.3.Anionic Polymerizations
3.3.4.Cationic Polymerizations
3.3.5.Ziegler–Natta Polymerizations
3.3.6.Copolymerizations
3.4.Polycondensations and Polyadditions
3.4.1.Bifunctional Polycondensations
3.4.2.Multifunctional Polycondensations
3.4.3.Polyaddition
3.5.Polymer Reactions
3.5.1.Polymer Transformations
3.5.2.Block and Graft Formations
3.5.3.Cross-Linking Reactions
3.5.4.Degradation Reactions
4.Plastics Manufacture
4.1.Homogenization and Compounding
4.2.Additives
4.2.1.Overview
4.2.2.Chemofunctional Additives
4.2.3.Processing Aids
4.2.4.Extending and Reinforcing Fillers
4.2.5.Plasticizers
4.2.6.Colorants
4.2.7.Blowing Agents
4.3.Processing
5.Supermolecular Structures
5.1.Noncrystalline States
5.1.1.Structure
5.1.2.Orientation
5.2.Polymer Crystals
5.2.1.Introduction
5.2.2.Crystal Structures
5.2.3.Crystallinity
5.2.4.Morphology
5.3.Mesophases
5.3.1.Introduction
5.3.2.Types of Liquid Crystals
5.3.3.Mesogens
5.3.4.Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Polymers
5.3.5.Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Polymers
5.3.6.Block Copolymers
5.3.7.Ionomers
5.4.Gels
5.5.Polymer Surfaces
5.5.1.Structure
5.5.2.Interfacial Tension
5.5.3.Adsorption
6.Thermal Properties
6.1.Molecular Motion
6.1.1.Thermal Expansion
6.1.2.Heat Capacity
6.1.3.Heat Conductivity
6.2.Thermal Transitions and Relaxations
6.2.1.Overview
6.2.2.Crystallization
6.2.3.Melting
6.2.4.Liquid Crystal Transitions
6.2.5.Glass Transitions
6.2.6.Other Transitions and Relaxations
6.2.7.Technical Methods
6.3.Transport
6.3.1.Self-Diffusion
6.3.2.Permeation
7.Rheological Properties
7.1.Introduction
7.2.Shear Viscosities at Rest
7.2.1.Fundamentals
7.2.2.Molar Mass Dependence
7.2.3.Concentrated Solutions
7.3.Non-Newtonian Shear Viscosities
7.3.1.Overview
7.3.2.Flow Curves
7.3.3.Melt Viscosities
7.4.Extensional Viscosities
7.4.1.Fundamentals
7.4.2.Melts
7.4.3.Solutions
8.Mechanical Properties
8.1.Introduction
8.1.1.Deformation of Polymers
8.1.2.Tensile Tests
8.1.3.Moduli and Poisson Ratios
8.2.Energy Elasticity
8.2.1.Theoretical Moduli
8.2.2.Real Moduli
8.2.3.Temperature Dependence
8.3.Entropy Elasticity
8.4.Viscoelasticity
8.4.1.Fundamentals
8.4.2.Time–Temperature Superposition
8.5.Dynamic Behavior
8.5.1.Fundamentals
8.5.2.Molecular Interpretations
8.6.Fracture
8.6.1.Overview
8.6.2.Theoretical Fracture Strength
8.6.3.Real Fracture Strength
8.6.4.Impact Resistance
8.6.5.Stress Cracking
8.6.6.Fatigue
8.7.Surface Mechanics
8.7.1.Hardness
8.7.2.Friction
8.7.3.Abrasion and Wear
9.Electric Properties
9.1.Dielectric Properties
9.1.1.Relative Permittivity
9.1.2.Dielectric Loss
9.1.3.Dielectric Strength and Tracking Resistance
9.1.4.Electrostatic Charging
9.2.Electrical Conductivity
9.3.Photoconductivity
10.Optical Properties
11.Polymer Composites
11.1.Introduction
11.1.1.Overview
11.1.2.Mixture Rules
11.2.Filled Polymers
11.2.1.Microcomposites
11.2.2.Molecular Composites
11.2.3.Macrocomposites
11.3.Homogeneous Blends
11.3.1.Thermodynamics
11.3.2.Plastification
11.3.3.Rubber Blends
11.3.4.Plastic Blends
11.4.Heterogeneous Blends
11.4.1.Compatible Polymers
11.4.2.Blend Formation
11.4.3.Toughened Plastics
11.4.4.Thermoplastic Elastomers
11.5.Expanded Plastics
12.Waste Disposal

Featured Compounds

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  1. 1 - 15
Compound 14
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 9a
Molecular Weight:42.0797
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 2
Molecular Weight:56.0633
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 8
Molecular Weight:98.1861
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 11
Molecular Weight:126.11
Molecular Formula:C6H6O3
InChIKey:ARJOQCYCJMAIFR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 7
Molecular Weight:98.1861
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 13
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 3
Molecular Weight:56.0633
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 4
Molecular Weight:56.0633
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 12
Molecular Weight:Not Available
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 6
Molecular Weight:98.1861
Molecular Formula:C7H14
InChIKey:KLCNJIQZXOQYTE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
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Compound 5
Molecular Weight:112.1265
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 9b
Molecular Weight:42.0797
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 10a
Molecular Weight:42.0797
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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Compound 10b
Molecular Weight:42.0797
Molecular Formula:Not Available
InChIKey:Not Available
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