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Polyurethanes

  1. Norbert Adam1,
  2. Geza Avar2,
  3. Herbert Blankenheim3,
  4. Wolfgang Friederichs4,
  5. Manfred Giersig5,
  6. Eckehard Weigand5,
  7. Michael Halfmann6,
  8. Friedrich-Wilhelm Wittbecker6,
  9. Donald-Richard Larimer7,
  10. Udo Maier8,
  11. Sven Meyer-Ahrens9,
  12. Karl-Ludwig Noble10,
  13. Hans-Georg Wussow11

Published Online: 15 JAN 2005

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a21_665.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Adam, N., Avar, G., Blankenheim, H., Friederichs, W., Giersig, M., Weigand, E., Halfmann, M., Wittbecker, F.-W., Larimer, D.-R., Maier, U., Meyer-Ahrens, S., Noble, K.-L. and Wussow, H.-G. 2005. Polyurethanes. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Bayer MaterialScience AG, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany

  2. 2

    Bayer MaterialScience AG, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany

  3. 3

    Bayer MaterialScience AG, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany

  4. 4

    Bayer MaterialScience AG, Dormagen, Federal Republic of Germany

  5. 5

    Bayer MaterialScience AG, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany

  6. 6

    Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Federal Republic of Germany

  7. 7

    Bayer MaterialScience AG, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany

  8. 8

    Bayer MaterialScience AG, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany

  9. 9

    Bayer MaterialScience AG, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany

  10. 10

    Bayer MaterialScience AG, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany

  11. 11

    Bayer MaterialScience AG, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2005

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Basic Reactions
3.Starting Materials
3.1.Polyisocyanates
3.1.1.Aromatic Polyisocyanates
3.1.2.Aliphatic Polyisocyanates
3.1.3.Blocked Isocyanates
3.2.Polyols
3.2.1.Polyether Polyols
3.2.2.Polyester Polyols
3.2.3.Polycarbonate Polyols
3.2.4.Other Polyols
3.3.Diamines and Amino-Terminated Polyethers
3.4.Special Building Blocks
3.5.Catalysts and Additives
4.Structure and Morphology
4.1.Polyurethanes Without Segmented Structure
4.2.Polyurethanes with Segmented Structure
4.2.1.Hard and Soft Segments
4.2.2.Segregation and Morphology
4.3.Cross-linking of Polyurethane
4.4.Polyisocyanurates
5.Production of Polyurethanes
5.1.Stoichiometry
5.2.Reaction without Solvents
5.2.1.One-Shot Process
5.2.2.Prepolymer Processes
5.3.Reaction in Solvents
5.3.1.One-Component Systems
5.3.2.Two-Component Systems
5.4.Reactive One-Pack Systems
5.5.Other Processes
6.Processing of Polyurethanes
6.1.Supply, Storage, and Preparation of Raw Materials
6.2.Metering and Mixing Technology
6.3.Processing Plants
7.Foams
7.1.Flexible Foams
7.1.1.Flexible Slabstock Foam
7.1.1.1.Raw Materials
7.1.1.2.Production
7.1.1.3.Properties
7.1.1.4.Trimming and Processing
7.1.1.5.Applications
7.1.2.Molded Flexible Foam
7.1.2.1.Production
7.1.2.2.Molding Process
7.1.2.3.Properties
7.1.2.4.Applications
7.2.Semirigid Foams
7.2.1.Applications
7.2.2.Production
7.2.3.Properties
7.3.Rigid Foams
7.3.1.Raw Materials
7.3.2.Processing
7.3.3.Properties
7.3.4.Special Types
7.4.Integral Skin Foams and RIM Materials
7.4.1.Applications
7.4.2.Production
7.4.3.Properties
8.Noncellular Polyurethanes
8.1.Cast Elastomers
8.1.1.Applications
8.1.2.Production
8.1.3.Properties
8.2.Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers (TPU)
9.Polyurethane Coatings
10.Polyurethane Adhesives
11.Polyurethane Fibers
12.Polyurethanes and Isocyanates as Binders
13.Special Products
14.Safety and Ecology
14.1.Safety Precautions when Handling the Raw Materials
14.2.Emissions, Accidental Release, and Waste Disposal
14.3.Recycling/Recovery of Polyurethanes
14.4.Fire Performance of Polyurethanes
15.Economic Aspects