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Sodium Chloride

  1. Gisbert Westphal1,
  2. Gerhard Kristen1,
  3. Wilhelm Wegener2,
  4. Peter Ambatiello3,
  5. Helmut Geyer4,
  6. Bernard Epron5,
  7. Christian Bonal5,
  8. Georg Steinhauser6,
  9. Franz Götzfried7

Published Online: 15 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a24_317.pub4

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Westphal, G., Kristen, G., Wegener, W., Ambatiello, P., Geyer, H., Epron, B., Bonal, C., Steinhauser, G. and Götzfried, F. 2010. Sodium Chloride. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Solvay Salz GmbH, Solingen, Federal

  2. 2

    Südwestdeutsche Salzwerke AG, Heilbronn, Germany

  3. 3

    Salzbergwerk Berchtesgaden, Germany

  4. 4

    Salzgewinnungsgesellschaft Westfalen mbH, Ahaus, Germany

  5. 5

    Compagnie des Salins du Midi et des Salines de l'Est, Paris, France

  6. 6

    Atominstitut der Österreichischen Universitäten, Vienna University of Technology, Austria

  7. 7

    Südsalz GmbH, Heilbronn, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2010

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.History
2.Properties
3.Formation and Occurrence of Salt Deposits
4.Production
4.1Mining of Rock Salt from Underground and Surface Deposits
4.1.1.Mining by Drilling and Blasting
4.1.2.Continuous Mining
4.1.3.Upgrading of Rock Salt
4.1.4.Utilization of the Chambers
4.2.Brine Production
4.2.1.Natural Brine Extraction
4.2.2.Solution Mining
4.2.2.1.Drilling and Construction of the Borehole
4.2.2.2.The Process of Solution Mining
4.2.2.3.Planning of the Extraction Process
4.2.2.4.Other Systems
4.2.2.5.Equipment
4.2.2.6.Storage Caverns
4.2.3.Combined Dry and Solution Mining
4.3.Vacuum Salt
4.3.1.Brine Purification
4.3.2.Open-Pan Evaporation
4.3.3.Multiple-Effect Process
4.3.4.Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) Process
4.3.5.Recrystallization Process
4.3.6.Other Process Steps
4.3.7.Evaluation of the Different Processes
4.3.8.Vacuum Salt based on Seawater as Raw Material
4.4.Production of Solar Salt
4.4.1.Production from Sea Water
4.4.1.1.The Main Factors Governing Production of Sea Salt
4.4.1.2.Production Stages in a Modern Salt Field
4.4.2.Crystallization from Mined Brine
4.4.3.Extraction from Salt Lakes
4.4.4.Seawater Desalination
5.Salt Standards
6.Analytical Methods
7.Uses
7.1.Table Salt and Food Processing
7.2.Agriculture
7.3.Water Treatment
7.4.Chemical Uses
7.5.De-icing and Anti-icing
7.6.Other Industrial Uses
8.Anticaking and Free-Flow Additives
9.Health Aspects
10.Environmental Aspects
11.Economic Aspects