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Solar Technology

  1. Joachim Luther1,
  2. Michael Nast2,
  3. M. Norbert Fisch3,
  4. Dirk Christoffers4,
  5. Fritz Pfisterer5,
  6. Dieter Meissner6,
  7. Joachim Nitsch2,
  8. Manfred Becker7

Published Online: 15 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a24_369.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Luther, J., Nast, M., Fisch, M. N., Christoffers, D., Pfisterer, F., Meissner, D., Nitsch, J. and Becker, M. 2012. Solar Technology. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Universität Oldenburg, Fachbereich Physik, Oldenburg, Germany

  2. 2

    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Technische Thermodynamik, Stuttgart, Germany

  3. 3

    Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Thermodynamik und Wärmetechnik, Stuttgart, Germany

  4. 4

    Institut für Solarenergieforschung Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal, Germany

  5. 5

    Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Physikalische Elektronik, Stuttgart, Germany

  6. 6

    AQR, Jülich, Germany

  7. 7

    Solarberatung, Lohmar, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2012

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.Concerning the Importance of Solar Energy Conversion
1.2.Terrestrial Solar Radiation
1.3.Methods of Solar Energy Conversion
1.4.Matching of Solar Energy Production and Consumption
2.Solar Thermal Energy
2.1.Development and Historical Aspects
2.2.Solar Thermal Energy Conversion
2.3.Technical Utilization of Solar Energy
2.3.1.Low-Temperature Applications
2.3.1.1.Design and Function of Flat Collectors
2.3.1.2.Systems for Heating Water
2.3.1.3.Systems for Room Heating
2.3.1.4.Other Low-Temperature Applications
2.3.2.Medium-Temperature and High-Temperature Applications
2.3.2.1.Solar Concentration
2.3.2.2.Concepts for Solar Thermal Power Plants
2.3.2.3.Development for Realization
2.3.2.4.Solar Thermal Power Plants
2.3.2.5.Future Plants and Potential
2.3.2.6.Economic Aspects
2.3.2.7.Process Heat for Chemical Applications
3.Passive Utilization of Solar Energy
3.1.Introduction
3.2.Building Design
3.2.1.Site Analysis
3.2.2.Design
3.2.3.Heat Conservation
3.3.Elements of Passive Utilization
3.3.1.Collection
3.3.2.Storage and Distribution
3.3.3.Shading and Cooling
3.3.4.Daylight
3.4.Performance of a Solar House
4.Photovoltaic Systems
4.1.Principle of Operation, PV Materials, and State-of-the-Art Solar Cells
4.2.General Structure of PV Systems
4.3.Photovoltaic Generators
4.3.1.Module Technology and Specifications
4.3.2.Tracking and Concentration
4.4.Power Conditioning Systems
4.5.Storage
4.6.Stand-Alone PV Systems
4.7.Grid-Connected PV Systems
4.8.Design Considerations and Modeling
4.9.Operational Experience
4.9.1.PV Module Performance
4.9.2.PV System Efficiency, Annual Energy Output
4.10.Economic Aspects, Market, Energy Payback, Prospects
4.10.1.Stand-Alone PV Systems
4.10.2.Grid-Connected PV Systems
4.10.3.Energy Payback Time
4.10.4.Multifunctional Use of PV Modules
5.Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion
5.1.Principles of Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion
5.2.Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells
5.3.Solar Wastewater Detoxification
5.4.Direct Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting
6.Economic Aspects