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  1. Dieter Schauwinhold1,
  2. Manfred Toncourt2,
  3. Rolf Steffen2,
  4. Dieter Janke3,
  5. Klaus Schäfer4,
  6. Hatto Jacobi5,
  7. Rudolf Hammer6,
  8. Robert Hentrich7,
  9. Lothar Kucharcik8,
  10. Herbert Wiegels9,
  11. Horst M. Aichinger2,
  12. Friedhelm Sänger10,
  13. Harold Walter11,
  14. Rolf Kümmerling12,
  15. Ulrich Uhl13,
  16. Werner Decker14,
  17. Roger Pankert15,
  18. Hans Hougardy16,
  19. Winfried Dahl17,
  20. Hans Jürgen Grabke16,
  21. Ulrich Kalla2,
  22. Gerhard Kalwa18,
  23. Reinhard Winkelgrund19,
  24. Heinz-Lothar Bünnagel20,
  25. Volker Brückmann20

Published Online: 15 APR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a25_063.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Schauwinhold, D., Toncourt, M., Steffen, R., Janke, D., Schäfer, K., Jacobi, H., Hammer, R., Hentrich, R., Kucharcik, L., Wiegels, H., Aichinger, H. M., Sänger, F., Walter, H., Kümmerling, R., Uhl, U., Decker, W., Pankert, R., Hougardy, H., Dahl, W., Grabke, H. J., Kalla, U., Kalwa, G., Winkelgrund, R., Bünnagel, H.-L. and Brückmann, V. 2008. Steel. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Düsseldorf, Germany

  2. 2

    VDEh, Düsseldorf, Germany

  3. 3

    TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Eisenhütten-Institut, Freiberg, Germany

  4. 4

    GMT, Georgsmarienhütte, Germany

  5. 5

    Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG, Duisburg, Germany

  6. 6

    Thyssen Stahl AG, Düsseldorf, Germany

  7. 7

    Krupp Stahl AG, Siegen, Germany

  8. 8

    Verein Deutscher Giessereifachleute (VDG), Düsseldorf, Germany

  9. 9

    RWTH Aachen, Institut für Bildsame Formgebung, Aachen, Germany

  10. 10

    Universität–Gesamthochschule Duisburg, Germany

  11. 11

    Dortmund, Germany

  12. 12

    Vallourec & MannesmannTubes Deutschland GmbH, Düsseldorf, Germany

  13. 13

    Hattingen, Germany

  14. 14

    Industrieverband Deutscher Schmieden e.V., Hagen-Ernst, Germany

  15. 15

    Union Miniere, Balen, Belgium

  16. 16

    Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Düsseldorf, Germany

  17. 17

    RWTH Aachen, Institut für Eisenhüttenkunde, Aachen, Germany

  18. 18

    Kaarst, Germany

  19. 19

    Stahl-Informations-Zentrum, Düsseldorf, Germany

  20. 20

    Wirtschaftsvereinigung Stahl, Düsseldorf, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2008

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)


The article contains sections titled:

2.1.From Prehistoric Times to the Middle Ages
2.1.1.Native Iron
2.1.2.Iron from Ores
2.1.3.Technology of Iron Production
2.2.From the Middle Ages to the 1800s
2.2.1.Bloomery Furnaces
2.2.2.Blast Furnaces
2.2.3.Metal Shaping
2.3.The Industrial Age
2.3.1.Pig Iron Production
2.3.2.Steel Production Steel Steel Steel
2.3.3.Rolled Steel Production Steel and Steam Power Steel and Mass Production
3.Crude Steel Production
3.1.Raw Materials
3.1.1.Hot Metal
3.1.3.Sponge Iron
3.2.Physical and Chemical Fundamentals
3.2.1.Thermodynamics Systems Based on Iron Systems - Slag Reactions Reactions - Gas Reactions
3.2.2.Kinetics and Mass Transfer of Heterogeneous Reactions and Mass Transfer Coefficients - Glas Phase Boundaries with Nonturbulent Flow - Slag Phase Boundaries with Nonturbulent Flow (Metal or Slag) - Liquid Phase Boundaries with Nonturbulent Flow Transfer with Turbulent Flow
3.3.Production Processes
3.3.1.Oxygen-Blowing Processes and OBM Processes Developments
3.3.2.Electric Steel Process Processes Siemens - Martin Open Hearth Process
3.3.3.Production of Stainless Steels
3.4.Secondary Metallurgy
3.4.1.Steel Treatment at Atmospheric Pressure Control
3.4.2.Vacuum Treatment Removal
3.5.Casting and Solidification
3.5.2.Ingot Casting
3.5.3.Continuous Casting Growth of Strand Casting Oscillation and Shell Formation of Molten Steel Level and Gap Lubrication Roller Apron and Secondary Cooling Zone Strand Casting Charging or Direct Rolling Thin Slabs Processes for Hot Steel Strip Production
3.5.4.Consumable Electrode Remelting Processes Processes Aims of Remelting Apparatus and Applications
3.5.5.Cast Steel and Cast Iron Steel Iron
4.1.1.Causes of Plasticity
4.1.3.Cold Forming
4.1.4.Hot Forming
4.1.5.Forming Processes
4.1.6.Aims of Forming Technology of Casting and Forming Treatment of Forming Processes Information Systems
4.2.Hot Working
4.2.1.Reheating Furnaces
4.2.2.Hot Rolling Products Products Products
4.2.3.Forging Die Forging Die Forging
4.3.Cold Rolling
4.3.5.Skin-Pass Rolling
4.3.6.Stainless Steels
4.3.7.Future Developments
5.Surface Coating
5.2.Hot-Dip Coating
5.2.1.Plant and Processes
5.2.2.Other Coating Processes
5.3.Electrolytic Coating (Electroplating)
5.3.1.Plant and Processes
5.3.2.Electroplating Cells
5.3.3.Coating Types
5.4.Vacuum Vapor Deposition
5.4.1.Plant and Processes
5.4.2.Further Developments
5.5.Coil Coating
5.5.1.Plant and Processes
5.5.2.Coating Systems
5.6.Roll-Bonded Cladding
5.6.2.The Process
6.1.1.Microstructure Diagrams of Iron Alloys in Plain Carbon Steels of Alloy Steels
6.1.2.Properties Properties Under Unidirectional Loads, at and Below Room Temperature Under Cyclic Loading at Higher Temperatures Properties Corrosion Corrosion Corrosion Corrosion Corrosion of Stainless Steels Corrosion Cracking Adsorption and Hydrogen Embrittlement of Iron of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Steels of Chlorine in Oxidation of Iron and Steel, Denitriding, and Hydrogen Attack Properties Ironα-Iron Solid Solutionsγ-Iron Solid Solutions Effects of Structure
6.1.3.Heat Treatment - Temperature Transformation Diagrams Treatment of Transformable Steels of Dimensions and Tempering Annealing Treatment Hardening Treatment Without Transformation of Heat Treatment
6.2.1.Classification of Steel and Steel Products for the Classification of Grades of Steel of Steel Products Systems for Steel
6.2.2.Types of Steel where the Mechanical Properties are Essential and High-Strength Structural and Reinforcing Steels Suitable for Heat-Treatment and Surface Hardening for Elevated Temperature Applications Steels Steels for Pipelines with Special Chemical Properties Steels Steels for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures with Special Physical Properties Magnetic Steels Steels with Special Physical Properties with Special Processing Properties for Flat Products for Cold Forming Suitable for Cold Extrusion and Cold Heading or Free-Cutting Steels
7.Environmental Protection
7.1.Environmental Aspects of Steel Production and Processing
7.1.1.Production of Steel and Steel Products
7.1.2.Steel Processing and Steel in Use
7.2.Steel Recycling
7.2.1.The Tradition of Steel Recycling
7.2.2.Types of Scrap
7.2.3.Scrap Processing Machines
7.2.4.Factors Influencing Recycling Steels Coatings of Used Steel Products
7.2.5.Economic and Logistic Aspects Consumption Market for Scrap and Logistics
8.Economic Aspects
8.1.World Steel Production, Consumption, and Trade
8.2.Steel Intensity and Weight Saving in Steel
8.3.Capital Investment and Subsidies
8.4.Future Prospects