Standard Article

Sugar

  1. Hubert Schiweck1,
  2. Margaret Clarke2,
  3. Günter Pollach3

Published Online: 15 APR 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a25_345.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Schiweck, H., Clarke, M. and Pollach, G. 2007. Sugar. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Südzucker AG Mannheim/Ochsenfurt, Mannheim, Germany

  2. 2

    Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana 70124, United States

  3. 3

    Gross-Enzersdorf, Austria

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2007

Chemistry Terms

Choose one or more boxes to highlight terms.

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Terms, Distinguishing Criteria, Uses, Nutritional Physiology
2.History
2.1.Development of the Cane Sugar Industry
2.2.Development of the Beet Sugar Industry
3.Properties
3.1.Physical Properties of Crystalline Sugar
3.2.Physical Properties of Aqueous Sugar Solutions
3.3.Chemical Properties
3.4.Sensory Properties
4.Sucrochemistry, Chemical and Enzymatic Synthesis
4.1.Sucrochemistry
4.2.Chemical and Enzymatic Synthesis
4.3.Plant Biosynthesis
5.Methods of Analysis
6.Sugar Beets: Cultivation, Harvesting, Preparation
6.1.Cultivation
6.2.Chemical Composition and Beet Quality
6.3.Preparation
6.4.Delivery and Storage
6.5.Thick-Juice Storage
6.6.Weighing and Sampling
6.7.Internal Transport, Washing
6.8.Processing Wash and Flume Water
6.9.Slicing Beets
7.Production of Juice (Extraction)
7.1.Principles
7.2.Extraction Technology
7.3.Extraction with Nonaqueous Solvents
7.4.Extraction Systems
7.4.1.BMA Extraction Systems
7.4.2.Extraction with the DdS Slope Diffuser
7.4.3.Extraction with the De Smet System
7.4.4.The RT-5 Continuous Extractor
7.5.Pressing Extracted Pulp
8.Juice Purification
8.1.Lime - Carbon Dioxide Treatment
8.2.Other Juice Purification Processes
8.2.1.Simultaneous Defeco-Carbonation
8.2.2.Braunschweig Juice Purification
8.2.3.Defeco-Carbonation with Intermediate or Post Main Liming
9.Evaporation of Thin Juice
10.Production of Sugar from Thick Juice
10.1.Production of Massecuite
10.2.Evaporating Crystallization
10.3.Mixing of Massecuites and Cooling Crystallization
10.4.Factors That Influence Rate of Crystallization
11.Separation of Sugar from Massecuite
12.Preparation of Refined and White Sugar
13.Working Schemes of Various Sugar Factories
13.1.Operation of a Raw Sugar Factory
13.2.Operation of a White Sugar Factory-Standard Liquor Process
13.3.White Sugar Factories with a Refinery Scheme
13.4.Refining
14.Ion-Exchange Processes in the Sugar Industry
14.1.Softening of Thin Juice
14.2.Exchange of Alkali Ions for Alkaline-Earth Ions
14.3.Separation of Molasses into Sugar and Nonsugar Fractions (Ion Exclusion)
14.4.Decolorization of Remelt Syrups and Thin Juices
14.5.Elimination of Ionogenic Nonsugar Substances
14.6.Production of Liquid Sugar
15.Production of Special Types of Sugar
15.1.Cube Sugar
15.2.Sugarloafs and Sugar Cones
15.3.Rock Candy
15.4.Icing Sugar
15.5.Instant Sugar
15.6.Preserving (Jelly) Sugar
15.7.Brown Sugar (Soft Sugar)
15.8.Sugar Solutions
15.9.Burnt Sugar and Caramel Colors (Caramels)
16.Storage of White Sugar
17.Auxiliary Facilities in a Sugar Factory
17.1.Steam and Energy Balance
17.2.Drying, Pelletizing, and Storing Pulp
17.3.Lime - Carbon Dioxide
18.Desugarization of Molasses
19.Sugar Yield, Energy Requirements, Processing Aids, Water, and Working Time
20.Cane Sugar
20.1.Sugarcane Cultivation
20.2.Composition of Sugarcane
20.3.Deterioration of Sugarcane
20.4.Harvesting and Delivery
20.5.Sugarcane Processing: Milling and Diffusion
20.5.1.Cleaning
20.5.2.Juice Extraction
20.5.3.Factory Fuel
20.6.Cane Factory Process
20.7.Direct White Sugar Factory
20.8.Refining
21.Sugar from Other Plants
22.Quality Demands on Sugar and Side Products of Sugar Production
22.1.Refined and White Sugar
22.2.Molasses
22.3.Vinasse
22.4.Liquid Feed Supplement
22.5.Beet Pulp
23.Economic Aspects