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Sulfur

  1. Wolfgang Nehb1,
  2. Karel Vydra2

Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a25_507.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Nehb, W. and Vydra, K. 2006. Sulfur. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Lurgi AG, Frankfurt/Main, Germany

  2. 2

    Frankfurt/Main, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Historical Background
3.Properties
3.1.Physical State
3.2.Viscosity
3.3.Other Physical Properties
3.4.Chemical Properties
4.Raw Materials for Sulfur Production
4.1.Elemental Sulfur Resources
4.2.Sulfide Ores
4.3.Fossil Fuels
4.4.Sulfates
5.Production from Native Deposits
5.1.Flotation
5.2.Melting Out
5.3.Distillation
5.4.Flotation with Melting Out
5.5.The Frasch Process
5.5.1.Structure of “Fraschable” Sulfur Deposits
5.5.2.Outline of the Process
5.5.3.Sulfur Purity
5.5.4.Energy Consumption
5.5.5.The U.S. Frasch Industry
5.5.6.The Mexican Frasch Industry
6.The Claus Process
6.1.Occurrence of Hydrogen Sulfide
6.2.Hydrogen Sulfide Removal from Gases
6.3.History of the Claus Process
6.4.Chemistry of the Claus Process
6.5.Claus Plant Configurations
6.6.The Claus - Oxygen Process
6.7.Troubleshooting
6.8.Optimization of Sulfur Recovery Units by Use of Analyzers
7.Increased Sulfur Recovery
7.1.Selective Oxidation
7.1.1.The Superclaus Process, the Euroclaus® Process
7.1.2.The Recycle Selectox Process
7.1.3.The Once-Through Selectox Process
7.2.Tail Gas Treatment
7.2.1.Sub-Dewpoint Processes
7.2.1.1.The Sulfreen, Hydrosulfreen, and Doxosulfreen Processes
7.2.1.2.The CBA Process
7.2.1.3.The MCRC Process
7.2.2.Processes Working on Reduced Tail Gases
7.2.2.1.The SCOT and Super-SCOT Processes
7.2.2.2.The Sulften Process
7.2.2.3.Solvents for Regenerative H2S Removal
7.2.2.4.The BSR/Selectox Process
7.2.3.Processes Working on Oxidized Tail Gas
7.2.3.1.The Wellman - Lord Process
7.2.3.2.The Clintox Process
7.2.4.Biodesulfurization; Thiopaq Process
7.3.Purification
7.3.1.Arsenic and Selenium Removal
7.3.2.Melting of Stretford Sulfur
7.3.3.Degassing of Claus Sulfur
7.4.Sulfur Management; the OmniSulf Process
8.Gas-Phase Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide
8.1.The Allied Chemicals Process
8.2.Other Processes with Gas as Reducing Agent
8.3.Processes with Coke or Coal as Reducing Agent
9.Commercial Grades and Forms of Sulfur
9.1.Quality
9.2.Commercial Forms for Bulk Transport
9.2.1.Dry Bulk Sulfur
9.2.2.Liquid Sulfur
9.2.3.Formed Sulfur
9.2.3.1.Slating
9.2.3.2.Wet Pelletizing (Water Prilling)
9.2.3.3.Air Prilling
9.2.3.4.Other Prilling Processes
9.2.3.5.Drum Granulation: The Procor GX Process
9.2.3.6.Spouted Bed Granulation
9.3.Special Forms and Grades
10.Uses
10.1.Agriculture
10.2.Construction Materials
10.3.Sulfur-Containing Batteries
10.4.Other Potential Uses