Standard Article

Surfactants

  1. Kurt Kosswig

Published Online: 15 JUN 2000

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a25_747

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Kosswig, K. 2000. Surfactants. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.

Author Information

  1. Hüls AG, Marl, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUN 2000

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Interfacial Phenomena
2.Overview of Surfactants
3.Properties of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions
4.Relationship between Structure and Properties of Surfactants
5.Industrial Development
6.Anionic Surfactants
6.1.Carboxylates
6.1.1.Carboxymethylated Ethoxylates
6.1.2.Amino Acid Derivatives
6.2.Sulfonates
6.2.1.Alkylbenzenesulfonates
6.2.2.Alkylnaphthalenesulfonates
6.2.3.Alkanesulfonates
6.2.4.α-Olefinsulfonates
6.2.5.α-Sulfo Fatty Acid Esters
6.2.6.Sulfosuccinates
6.2.7.Alkoxyalkane-, Acyloxyalkane-, and Acylaminoalkanesulfonates
6.3.Sulfates
6.3.1.Alkyl Sulfates
6.3.2.Ether Sulfates
6.4.Alkyl Phosphates
7.Nonionic Surfactants
7.1.General Properties
7.2.Ethoxylates
7.3.Terminally Blocked Ethoxylates
7.4.Fatty Acid Esters of Polyhydroxy Compounds
7.5.Amine Oxides
8.Cationic Surfactants
8.1.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
8.2.Imidazoline Derivatives
9.Amphoteric Surfactants
10.Surfactants with Heteroatoms in the Hydrophobic Group
10.1.Block Copolymers of Propylene Oxide and Ethylene Oxide
10.2.Silicone-Based Surfactants
10.3.Fluorosurfactants
11.Analysis
11.1.Identification of Surfactants
11.2.Isolation and Separation
11.3.Quantitative Determination
11.4.Unspecific Additive Parameters
12.Utility Evaluation of Surfactants
13.Uses
14.Economic Aspects
15.Toxicology and Environmental Aspects
15.1.Introduction
15.2.Toxicology
15.3.Biological Degradation
15.3.1.Methods for Determining Biological Degradation
15.3.2.Biodegradation Mechanisms
15.3.3.Toxicity of Surfactants and their Metabolites to Aquatic Organisms
15.4.Preservation of Surfactants