Standard Article

Oil Sands

  1. Maurice B. Dusseault,
  2. Ali Shafiei

Published Online: 15 FEB 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a26_129.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Dusseault, M. B. and Shafiei, A. 2011. Oil Sands. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.

Author Information

  1. University of Waterloo, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Waterloo, ON, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 FEB 2011

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Definitions
3.Chemistry
4.Viscous Oil Origins, Geological Setting and Resource Base Estimates
4.1.Viscous Oil Origins
4.2.Geographical Distribution and Resource Base Estimates
4.3.Canadian Oil Sands Deposits
4.3.1.The Athabasca Oil Sands
4.3.2.The Cold Lake Oil Sands
4.3.3.The Peace River Viscous Oil Sands
4.3.4.The Wabiskaw Viscous Oil Sands
4.3.5.The Heavy Oil Belt
4.3.6.Venezuelan Viscous Oil Deposits
4.4.Other Major Viscous Oil Deposits
4.4.1.Russia
4.4.2.Kazakhstan
4.4.3.Kuwait
4.4.4.China
4.4.5.Iran
5.In situ Production Technologies
5.1.Historical Development
5.2.Surface Mining
5.3.New Oil Production Technologies
5.3.1.Technical Screening Criteria for VO Production
5.3.2.VO Production Cost Estimates
5.3.3.Nonthermal Commercialized Methods
5.3.3.1.Cold Production
5.3.3.2.Cold Heavy Oil Production With Sand
5.3.3.3.Pressure Pulse Stimulation Technology
5.3.4.Commercialized Thermal Methods
5.3.4.1.In Situ Combustion
5.3.4.2.Conventional Steam Processes
5.3.4.3.Vertical Well Cyclic Steam Stimulation
5.3.4.4.Horizontal Well Cyclic Steam Stimulation
5.3.4.5.Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage
5.3.5.Emerging Methods
5.3.5.1.Vapor-Assisted Petroleum Production
5.3.5.2.Toe-to-Heel-Air Injection
5.3.5.3.CAPRI
5.3.5.4.Deep Miscible CO2 Injection
5.3.6.Hybrid Approaches and Sequencing of Technologies
5.3.7.Geomechanics of Thermal VO Production
5.3.8.Steam Generation
5.3.9.Further Technical Issues
6.Upgrading and Transportation
6.1.Noncatalytic Processes in VO Upgrading
6.1.1.Solvent Deasphaltening
6.1.2.Thermal Conversion
6.1.2.1.Gasification
6.1.2.2.Delayed Coking
6.1.2.3.Fluid Coking and Flexicoking
6.1.2.4.Visbreaking
6.2.Catalytic Processes in VO Upgrading
6.2.1.Fluid Catalytic Cracking
6.2.2.Hydroprocessing/Hydrogenation
6.3.Hydrogen Sources
6.4.Coke
6.5.Sulfur Removal
6.6.Future Developments in Upgrading
6.7.Viscous Oil Transportation
7.Environmental Issues
7.1.Surface Mining Solid Wastes
7.2.Surface Mining Liquid Wastes and Sludges
7.3.In Situ Viscous Oil Recovery Processes
7.4.Sulfur and Coke
7.5.General Waste Management Options
7.6.Zero Emissions Targets
7.7.Greenhouse Gas Emissions
7.8.Water Issues