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Tungsten, Tungsten Alloys, and Tungsten Compounds

  1. Erik Lassner1,
  2. Wolf-Dieter Schubert2,
  3. Eberhard Lüderitz3,
  4. Hans Uwe Wolf4

Published Online: 15 JUN 2000

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a27_229

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Lassner, E., Schubert, W.-D., Lüderitz, E. and Wolf, H. U. 2000. Tungsten, Tungsten Alloys, and Tungsten Compounds. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Graz, Austria

  2. 2

    Institut für chemische Technologie anorganischer Stoffe, Technische Universität Wien, Wien, Austria

  3. 3

    Fürth, Federal Republic of Germany

  4. 4

    Universität Ulm, Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUN 2000

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Properties
2.1.Physical Properties
2.2.Chemical Properties
3.Raw Materials
3.1.Natural Resources
3.2.Tungsten Scrap
4.Production
4.1.Ore Beneficiation
4.2.Pretreatment of Ore Concentrates and Scrap
4.3.Hydrometallurgy
4.3.1.Digestion
4.3.2.Purification
4.3.3.Conversion of Sodium Tungstate Solution to Ammonium Tungstate Solution
4.3.3.1.Solvent Extraction
4.3.3.2.Ion Exchange Process
4.3.4.Crystallization of Ammonium Paratungstate (APT)
4.4.Calcination of APT
4.5.Reduction by Hydrogen to Tungsten Metal Powder
4.6.Production of Compact Metal
4.7.Processing of Sintered Parts
4.7.1.Shaping
4.7.2.Mechanical Bonding of Tungsten to Tungsten and Other Metals
4.8.Surface Treatment
4.9.Tungsten Coatings
4.10.Production of High-Purity Tungsten Metal (99.999 - 99.9999 %)
5.Tungsten Alloys
5.1.Single-Phase Mixed-Crystal Alloys
5.2.Multiple Phase Alloys
6.Uses
7.Analysis
7.1.Raw Materials
7.2.High-Purity Intermediate Products, Tungsten Powder, and Compact Tungsten Metal
7.3.Trace Elements in High-Purity Tungsten Metal
8.Ferrotungsten and Related Alloys
8.1.Composition
8.2.Uses
8.3.Production
8.3.1.Ferrotungsten
8.3.1.1.Carbothermic Production
8.3.1.2.Carbothermic and Silicothermic Production
8.3.1.3.Metallothermic Production
8.3.2.Production of Tungsten Melting Base and Tungsten Master Alloys
9.Compounds
9.1.Tungsten Chemistry
9.2.Aqueous Solutions of Tungsten
9.3.Intermetallic Compounds
9.4.Compounds with Nonmetals
9.4.1.Tungsten - Boron Compounds
9.4.2.Tungsten - Carbon Compounds
9.4.3.Tungsten - Silicon Compounds
9.4.4.Tungsten - Group 15 Compounds
9.4.5.Tungsten - Oxygen Compounds
9.4.6.Tungsten - Chalcogenide Compounds
9.4.7.Tungsten - Halogenide Compounds
10.Tungsten in Catalysis
11.Economic Aspects
12.Tungsten Recycling
13.Beneficial Effects on Human Health
14.Toxicology and Occupational Health
15.Acknowledgement