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Uranium, Uranium Alloys, and Uranium Compounds

  1. Martin Peehs1,
  2. Thomas Walter2,
  3. Sabine Walter3,
  4. Martin Zemek4

Published Online: 15 APR 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a27_281.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Peehs, M., Walter, T., Walter, S. and Zemek, M. 2007. Uranium, Uranium Alloys, and Uranium Compounds. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Siemens AG, Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen, Germany

  2. 2

    PreussenElektra Aktiengesellschaft, Hannover, Germany

  3. 3

    Universität Hannover, Institut für Werkstoffkunde, Hannover, Germany

  4. 4

    AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2007

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.History
3.Physical Properties
3.1.Radioactivity
3.2.Modifications
3.3.Mechanical Properties
3.4.Thermal Properties
3.5.Electrical and Electrochemical Properties
3.6.Magnetic Properties
4.Chemical Properties
5.Occurrence, Requirement, and Production Figures
5.1.Occurrence
5.2.Resources, Requirement, and Production Figures
6.Production
6.1.Uses of Uranium and Uranium Compounds
6.2.From Ore to End Product-A Review of Processes
6.2.1.From Crude Ore to Yellow Cake
6.2.2.From Yellow Cake to UF6
6.2.3.From UF6 to the Nuclear Fuel UO2
6.3.Detailed Description of the Processes
6.3.1.Digestion and Leaching of Ores
6.3.1.1.Acidic Ores
6.3.1.2.Alkaline Ores
6.3.1.3.Digestion of Phosphate Rock
6.3.2.Treatment of the Liquor
6.3.2.1.Uranium Recovery by Ion Exchange
6.3.2.2.Uranium Recovery by Solvent Extraction
6.3.2.3.Eluex Process
6.3.3.Production of Uranium Ore Concentrate
6.3.3.1.From Precipitation to Yellow Cake Production
6.3.3.2.Processing of Phosphate Liquor and Precipitation of AUC
6.3.4.Final Purification of Uranium Concentrate
6.3.4.1.Dissolution of Yellow Cake
6.3.4.2.Extractive Purification
6.3.5.Production of UO3 and UO2 from Purified Uranyl Nitrate Solution
6.3.5.1.Evaporation of Uranyl Nitrate Solution and Denitration by Thermal Decomposition
6.3.5.2.Precipitation of Uranium by the ADU and AUC Processes
6.3.5.3.Reduction of Precipitated Product to UO2 Powder
6.3.6.Production of UF4
6.3.6.1.Hydrofluorination of UO2
6.3.6.2.Hydration and Hydrofluorination of UO3
6.3.7.Production of UF6 from UF4
6.3.7.1.Process Description
6.3.7.2.Chemical Reactors
6.3.7.3.Removal of Excess Fluorine from UF6
6.3.8.Complete Plant for Production of UF6 from Uranyl Nitrate
6.3.8.1.French Process in Pierrelatte
6.3.8.2.Allied Chemical Process
6.3.9.Enrichment of 235U
6.3.9.1.Diffusion Process
6.3.9.2.Ultracentrifuges
6.3.9.3.Nozzle Process
6.3.9.4.Chemical Enrichment
6.3.9.5.Laser Separation Process
6.3.9.6.Plasma Processes
6.3.10.Production of UO2 Pellets from UF6
6.3.10.1.Conversion of UF6 to UO2
6.3.10.2.Possible Future Developments in the Conversion of UF6 to UO2 Powder
6.3.10.3.Pelletizing of UO2 Powder
6.3.11.Production of Uranium Metal
6.3.11.1.Reduction of UF6 to UF4
6.3.11.2.Reduction of UF4 to Uranium Metal
6.3.11.3.Production of Uranium Powder
7.Uranium Alloys
7.1.Classification
7.2.Production of Important Alloys
8.Uranium Compounds
8.1.Halides
8.1.1.Trivalent Halides
8.1.2.Uranium Tetrahalides
8.1.3.Uranium Pentafluoride
8.1.4.Uranium Hexafluoride
8.2.Carbides
8.3.Nitrides
8.4.Oxides
8.4.1.Uranium Dioxide
8.4.2.Uranium Trioxide
8.4.3.Triuranium Octaoxide
8.4.4.Peroxides
8.5.Nitrates, Sulfates, and the Carbonato Complex
8.5.1.Nitrates
8.5.2.Sulfates
8.5.3.Tricarbonatodioxouranate
9.Safety
9.1.Radiation Shielding
9.2.Safety Against Uncontrolled Criticality
9.3.Geometrically Safe Vessels
9.4.Apparatus with Heterogeneous Neutron Absorbers
9.5.Neutron Interactions in the UO2 Fabrication Plant
9.6.Transportation