Standard Article

Urea

  1. Jozef H. Meessen

Published Online: 15 OCT 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a27_333.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Meessen, J. H. 2010. Urea. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Stamicarbon, Sittard, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2010

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Physical Properties
3.Chemical Properties
4.Production
4.1.Principles
4.1.1.Chemical Equilibrium
4.1.2.Physical Phase Equilibria
4.2.Challenges in Urea Production Process Design
4.2.1.Recycle of Nonconverted Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide
4.2.2.Corrosion
4.2.3.Side Reactions
4.3.Description of Processes
4.3.1.Conventional Processes
4.3.2.Stripping Processes
4.3.2.1.Stamicarbon CO2-Stripping Process
4.3.2.2.The Avancore Urea Process
4.3.2.3.Snamprogetti Ammonia- and Self-Stripping Processes
4.3.2.4.ACES Process
4.3.2.5.Isobaric Double-Recycle Process
4.3.3.Other Processes
4.4.Effluents and Effluent Reduction
4.4.1.Gaseous Effluents
4.4.2.Liquid Effluents
4.5.Product-Shaping Technology
4.5.1.Prilling
4.5.2.Granulation
4.5.3.Other Shaping Technologies
4.6.Revamping Technologies
5.Forms Supplied, Storage, and Transportation
6.Quality Specifications and Analysis
7.Uses
8.Economic Aspects