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Vitamins

  1. Manfred Eggersdorfer1,
  2. Geo Adam2,
  3. Michael John3,
  4. Wolfgang Hähnlein4,
  5. Ludvik Labler (retired)5,
  6. Kai-U. Baldenius6,
  7. Linda von dem Bussche-Hünnefeld7,
  8. Eckhard Hilgemann8,
  9. Peter Hoppe9,
  10. Rainer Stürmer10,
  11. Fritz Weber11,
  12. August Rüttimann12,
  13. Gérard Moine13,
  14. Hans-Peter Hohmann14,
  15. Roland Kurth15,
  16. Joachim Paust16,
  17. Wolfgang Hähnlein17,
  18. Horst Pauling18,
  19. Bernd–Jürgen Weimann19,
  20. Bruno Kaesler20,
  21. Bernd Oster21,
  22. Ulrich Fechtel22,
  23. Klaus Kaiser23,
  24. Bernd de Potzolli24,
  25. Michael Casutt25,
  26. Thomas Koppe26,
  27. Michael Schwarz27,
  28. Bernd-Jürgen Weimann28,
  29. Urs Hengartner29,
  30. Antoine de Saizieu30,
  31. Christof Wehrli31,
  32. René Blum32

Published Online: 15 JUN 2000

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a27_443

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Eggersdorfer, M., Adam, G., John, M., Hähnlein, W., Labler, L., Baldenius, K.-U., von dem Bussche-Hünnefeld, L., Hilgemann, E., Hoppe, P., Stürmer, R., Weber, F., Rüttimann, A., Moine, G., Hohmann, H.-P., Kurth, R., Paust, J., Hähnlein, W., Pauling, H., Weimann, B., Kaesler, B., Oster, B., Fechtel, U., Kaiser, K., de Potzolli, B., Casutt, M., Koppe, T., Schwarz, M., Weimann, B.-J., Hengartner, U., de Saizieu, A., Wehrli, C. and Blum, R. 2000. Vitamins. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  2. 2

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  3. 3

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  4. 4

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  5. 5

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland

  6. 6

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  7. 7

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  8. 8

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  9. 9

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  10. 10

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  11. 11

    Münchenstein, Switzerland

  12. 12

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland

  13. 13

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland

  14. 14

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland

  15. 15

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  16. 16

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  17. 17

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  18. 18

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland

  19. 19

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland

  20. 20

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  21. 21

    E. Merck, Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany

  22. 22

    E. Merck, Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany

  23. 23

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  24. 24

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany

  25. 25

    E. Merck, Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany

  26. 26

    E. Merck, Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany

  27. 27

    E. Merck, Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany

  28. 28

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland

  29. 29

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland

  30. 30

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland

  31. 31

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland

  32. 32

    Lonza, Basel, Switzerland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUN 2000

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.Definition
1.2.Substances with Vitamin-Like Character
1.3.History
1.4.Determination of Requirement
1.5.Application and Tolerance
1.6.Studies with Vitamins
1.7.Use of Vitamins in Food- and Feedstuffs
1.8.Antivitamins
1.9.Analysis of Vitamins
1.10.Production
2.Vitamin A (Retinoids)
2.1.Introduction
2.2.Historical Aspects
2.3.Physical Properties
2.4.Chemical Properties
2.5.Occurrence
2.6.Biosynthesis
2.7.Production
2.7.1.Isolation and Purification from Natural Raw Materials
2.7.2.Industrial Synthesis
2.8.Metabolism and Physiological Functions
2.8.1.Preformed Vitamin A
2.8.2.β-Carotene
2.9.Deficiency Symptoms and Requirements
2.10.Analysis and Standardization
2.11.Trade Names and Economic Aspects
2.12.Tolerance
3.Vitamin D
3.1.Introduction
3.2.History
3.3.Structure and Nomenclature
3.4.Chemical and Physical Properties
3.5.Biosynthesis and Occurrence
3.5.1.Biosynthesis
3.5.2.Occurrence
3.6.Vitamin D Requirements
3.7.Pharmacological Effects and Uses
3.7.1.Calcium Homeostasis and Disorders of Calcium Metabolism
3.7.2.Further Activities
3.8.Synthesis
3.8.1.Synthesis of Vitamin D3 and D2
3.8.2.Synthesis of Calcitriol
3.9.Assays for Vitamin D and Metabolites
3.10.Trade Names and Economic Aspects
4.Vitamin E (Tocopherols, Tocotrienols)
4.1.Introduction
4.2.History
4.3.Physical Properties
4.4.Chemical Properties
4.5.Metabolism and Importance in the Organism
4.6.Deficiency, Requirement, and Application
4.7.Analysis and Standardization
4.8.Occurrence
4.9.Economic Aspects
4.10.Biosynthesis
4.11.Production
4.11.1.Semisynthetic Vitamin E: Isolation from Plant Oils and Methylation
4.11.2.Totally Synthetic Vitamin E: Industrial Synthesis
4.11.3.Trimethylhydroquinone
4.11.4.Phytol and Isophytol
4.11.5.Stereoselective Syntheses of α-Tocopherol
5.Vitamin K
5.1.Introduction; History
5.2.Physical Properties
5.3.Chemical Properties
5.4.Occurrence
5.5.Biosynthesis
5.6.Chemical Synthesis
5.7.Analysis
5.8.Metabolism
5.9.Importance for the Organism
5.9.1.Function
5.9.2.Antagonists and Anticoagulants
5.9.3.Relative Activity
5.10.Deficiency Symptoms
5.10.1.Causes
5.10.2.Evaluation of Vitamin K Status
5.11.Requirement
5.12.Application
5.13.Tolerance
5.14.Trade Names and Economic Aspects
6.Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
6.1.Structure and Nomenclature
6.2.History
6.3.Physical Properties
6.4.Chemical Properties
6.5.Natural Occurrence and Isolation
6.6.Biosynthesis in Microorganisms
6.6.1.Biosynthesis of the Pyrimidine Component in Prokaryotes
6.6.2.Biosynthesis of the Pyrimidine Component in Eukaryotes
6.6.3.Biosynthesis of the Thiazole Component
6.6.4.Biosynthesis of Thiamin Pyrophosphate
6.6.5.Thiamin Biosynthetic Genes from E. coli
6.6.6.Mapping and Cloning of Thiamin Biosynthetic Genes from Other Species
6.6.7.Regulation of Thiamin Biosynthesis in Prokaryotes
6.6.8.Regulation of Thiamin Biosynthesis in Yeasts
6.6.9.Thiamin-Overexpressing Microorganisms
6.7.Chemical Synthesis
6.7.1.Condensation of the Pyrimidine and Thiazole Rings
6.7.2.Construction of the Thiazole Ring on a Preformed Pyrimidine Portion
6.8.Commercial Forms
6.9.Derivatives, Analogues, and Antimetabolites
6.10.Biochemical and Physiological Functions
6.10.1.Metabolic Functions in the Organism
6.10.2.Thiamin Requirements and Deficiency
6.11.Analytical Methods
7.Riboflavin
7.1.Introduction
7.2.History
7.3.Physical and Chemical Properties
7.4.Occurrence
7.5.Biosynthesis
7.6.Production
7.6.1.Syntheses
7.6.2.Industrial Chemical Production
7.6.3.Industrial Production by Fermentation
7.6.4.Syntheses of Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN)
7.6.5.Syntheses of Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD)
7.7.Importance for the Organism
7.8.Requirements, Deficiency Symptoms, and Therapeutic Application
7.9.Analysis
7.10.Economic Aspects
7.11.Tolerance
8.Vitamin B6
8.1.Introduction
8.2.History
8.3.Physical Properties
8.4.Chemical Reactions
8.5.Occurrence
8.6.Biosynthesis
8.7.Production of Vitamin B6 Compounds
8.7.1.Pyridoxine
8.7.1.1.Oxidative Degradation of Bicyclic Heterocyclic Compounds
8.7.1.2.Condensation Reactions with Aliphatic Precursors
8.7.1.3.From Furan Compounds
8.7.1.4.Diels - Alder Syntheses with Oxazoles
8.7.1.5.Cobalt-Catalyzed [2+2+2]-Cycloaddition Reactions of Acetylenes and Acetonitrile
8.7.2.Pyridoxine 5′-Phosphate
8.7.3.Pyridoxal
8.7.4.Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate
8.7.5.Pyridoxamine
8.7.6.Pyridoxamine 5′-Phosphate
8.8.Metabolism and Importance for the Organism
8.9.Deficiency Symptoms and Applications
8.10.Analysis
8.11.Economic Aspects
8.12.Requirements and Tolerance
9.Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins)
9.1.Introduction
9.2.Properties of Vitamin B12
9.3.Analysis
9.4.Biosynthesis
9.5.Production
9.5.1.Fermentation
9.5.2.Work-Up
9.5.3.Patents and Scientific Survey
9.6.Specifications and Legal Aspects
9.7.Economic Aspects
10.Vitamin C (l-Ascorbic Acid)
10.1.Introduction
10.2.History
10.3.Physical and Chemical Properties
10.4.Analysis
10.5.Occurrence and Sources of Vitamin C
10.6.Biosynthesis
10.7.Manufacture of Vitamin C
10.7.1.Reichstein Synthesis
10.7.2.Industrial Manufacture by the Reichstein Route
10.7.3.Other Methods for Production of Ascorbic Acid
10.8.Absorption and Metabolism
10.9.Medical Aspects of Vitamin C
10.10.Industrial Uses
10.11.Economic Aspects
11.Pantothenic Acid
11.1.Introduction
11.2.History
11.3.Physical and Chemical Properties
11.4.Occurrence
11.5.Biosynthesis
11.6.Production
11.7.Metabolism and Importance for the Organisms; Coenzyme A and its Precursors
11.8.Deficiency Symptoms, Requirement, and Application
11.9.Analysis
11.10.Economic Aspects
12.Biotin
12.1.Introduction
12.2.History
12.3.Physical and Chemical Properties
12.4.Occurrence
12.5.Biosynthesis
12.6.Function as Prosthetic Group
12.7.Isolation and Production
12.8.Metabolism and Importance for the Organism
12.9.Deficiency Symptoms, Requirement, and Application
12.9.1.Symptoms and Therapy in Humans
12.9.2.Symptoms and Therapy in Animals
12.10.Biotin Analogs
12.11.Analysis and Standardization
12.12.Uses and Economic Aspects
12.13.Tolerance and Environmental Protection
13.Folic Acid
13.1.Introduction
13.2.Historical Notes
13.3.Properties
13.4.Content in Food and Bioavailability
13.5.Biosynthesis
13.6.Chemical Synthesis
13.7.Metabolism and Biochemical Functions
13.8.Nutritional Requirements and Medical Use
13.9.Analysis
13.10.Economic Aspects
14.Niacin (Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinamide)
14.1.Introduction
14.2.Physical and Chemical Properties
14.3.Biochemical Functions
14.4.Production
14.5.Quality Specifications
14.6.Analysis
14.7.Uses
14.8.Economic Aspects
14.9.Toxicology