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Water, 1. Properties, Analysis and Hydrological Cycle

  1. Hermann Weingärtner1,
  2. Ernst Ulrich Franck2,
  3. Gabriele Wiegand2,
  4. Nicolaus Dahmen2,
  5. Georg Schwedt3,
  6. Fritz H. Frimmel4,
  7. Birgit C. Gordalla4

Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a28_001.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Weingärtner, H., Franck, E. U., Wiegand, G., Dahmen, N., Schwedt, G., Frimmel, F. H. and Gordalla, B. C. 2011. Water, 1. Properties, Analysis and Hydrological Cycle. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Physikalische Chemie II, Bochum, Federal Republic of Germany

  2. 2

    Institut für Heiße Chemie, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany

  3. 3

    Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Technische Universität Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany

  4. 4

    Engler-Bunte-Institut der Universität Karlsruhe, Bereich Wasserchemie, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2011

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (21 MAR 2016)


The article contains sections titled:

1.Water as a Solvent
1.1.Properties of Pure Water
1.1.1.Molecular Properties
1.1.2.Hydrogen Bonding and Water Structure
1.1.3.Bulk Properties of Liquid Water
1.2.Aqueous Solutions
1.2.1.General Solvent Properties
1.2.2.Solutions of Simple Nonpolar Gases
1.2.3.Solutes with Hydrophilic Groups
1.2.4.Electrolyte Solutions
2.Water at High Pressure and Temperature
2.1.Properties of Ice
2.1.1.Thermodynamic Properties
2.1.2.Transport Properties
2.1.3.Electrolytic Properties
2.1.4.Mechanical Properties
2.2.Properties of Fluid Water
2.2.1.Thermodynamic Properties
2.2.2.Transport Properties
2.2.3.Electrolytic Properties
2.2.4.Other Physical Properties
2.3.Properties of Water Vapor
2.4.Water in the Supercritical State
3.Water Analysis
3.1.Sampling and Sample Preservation
3.2.Physicochemical and Sum Parameters
3.3.Inorganic Analysis
3.3.1.Determination of Cations
3.3.2.Anion Analysis
3.3.3.Determination of Dissolved Gases
3.3.4.Quick Test Processes
3.4.Organic Analysis
3.4.1.Spectrometric Methods
3.4.2.Gas and Liquid Chromatography
3.5.Biochemical Methods
4.Hydrological Cycle and Water Use
4.1.World Water Balance
4.2.Hydrological Cycle
4.3.Demand for Water
4.4.Source of Water Used
4.5.Water Treatment