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Zeolites

  1. Robert W. Broach1,
  2. Deng-Yang Jan1,
  3. David A. Lesch1,
  4. Santi Kulprathipanja1,
  5. Eckehart Roland2,
  6. Peter Kleinschmit2

Published Online: 15 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a28_475.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Broach, R. W., Jan, D.-Y., Lesch, D. A., Kulprathipanja, S., Roland, E. and Kleinschmit, P. 2012. Zeolites. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    UOP LLC, A Honeywell Company, Des Plaines, Illinois, United States

  2. 2

    Degussa AG, ZN Wolfgang, Hanau, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2012

Chemistry Terms

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Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Nomenclature
3.History
4.Structure, Composition, and Properties
4.1.Framework Structure
4.2.Nonframework Cations
4.3.Chemical and Physical Properties
4.3.1.Physical Properties
4.3.2.Chemical Properties
5.Characterization
6.Occurrence, Mining, and Processing of Natural Zeolites
7.Production of Synthetic Zeolites
7.1.Chemistry of Zeolite Synthesis
7.2.Composition of Reaction Mixtures
7.3.Raw Materials
7.3.1.Synthesis Conditions
7.3.2.Examples of Industrial Zeolite Syntheses
7.3.3.Post Synthesis Treatments
7.3.4.Environmental Aspects
8.Commercial Applications and Importance
8.1.Natural Zeolites
8.2.Synthetic Zeolites
8.2.1.Adsorption
8.2.2.Membranes
8.2.3.Catalysis
8.2.4.Other Uses
9.Toxicology

Zeolites are hydrated aluminosilicates with a three-dimensional framework structure constructed of SiO4 and AlO4 tetrahedra linked through oxygen atoms. They contain regular channels or interlinked voids whose aperture diameters are in the micropore range. The regular nature of the channels and apertures, whose dimensions are of the same order of magnitude as molecular diameters, enables the zeolites to function as molecular sieves and gives them value as selective adsorbents for separating substances and as shape-selective catalysts. This article gives an overview of history, structure, properties, occurrence, production, and applications of zeolites.