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Filtration, 1. Fundamentals

  1. Siegfried Ripperger1,
  2. Walter Gösele2,
  3. Christian Alt3

Published Online: 15 OCT 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.b02_10.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Ripperger, S., Gösele, W. and Alt, C. 2009. Filtration, 1. Fundamentals. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Gonbach, Germany

  2. 2

    Heidelberg, Germany

  3. 3

    München, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2009

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (16 SEP 2013)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Terminology
2.Filtration Models
2.1.Calculation of the Pressure Drop over the Filter Medium and/or the Filter Cake
2.1.1.Definition of Filter Resistance and Cake Permeability: The Darcy Equation
2.1.2.The Equation of Kozeny and Carman
2.2.Cake Filtration
2.2.1.The “Cake Filter Equation”
2.2.2.Evaluation of Experiments with Linear Diagrams
2.2.2.1.Linear Diagram in the Differential Form
2.2.2.2.Linear Diagram in Integrated Form
2.2.2.3.Example
2.2.2.4.Deviations from Linearity
2.2.3.Compressible Cake Filtration
2.3.Blocking Filtration and other Modes of Filtration
2.3.1.Complete Blocking Filtration
2.3.2.Intermediate and Standard Blocking Filtration
2.3.3.Simplified Evaluation of Experimental Data
2.4.Depth Filtration
2.4.1.Depth Filtration Mechanisms
2.4.2.Cleaning and Sizing of Deep Bed Filters
2.5.Cross-Flow Filtration
3.Washing of Filter Cakes
3.1.Basic Effects, Mass Balances
3.2.Example of Experimental Results
3.3.Test Procedures and Pitfalls
3.4.“Intermediate” Deliquoring before Cake Washing
4.Deliquoring of Filter Cakes
4.1.Deliquoring by Gas Pressure
4.1.1.Equilibrium Saturation of Filter Cakes
4.1.2.Kinetics of Deliquoring by Gas Pressure
4.1.3.Approximate Solution for Coarse, Incompressible Cakes
4.1.4.Practical Scale-Up of Deliquoring by Gas Pressure
4.1.5.Shrinking and Cracks in Filter Cakes
4.2.Deliquoring by Expression
5.Optimal Filtration Cycle Time
6.Interparticle Forces and Forces Between Particles and Filtermedia, DLVO Theory
7.Mathematical Simulation of Filtration and Cake Formation
8.Handling of “Unfilterable” Suspension
8.1.Optimization of Upstream Steps (Crystallization, Precipitation)
8.2.Application of Flocculants (Polyelectrolytes)
8.3.Adaptation of pH
8.4.Checking of Alternatives to Cake Filtration
8.5.Use of a Filter Aid