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Distillation, 1. Fundamentals

  1. Johann Stichlmair

Published Online: 15 APR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.b03_04.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Stichlmair, J. 2010. Distillation, 1. Fundamentals. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Technische Universität München, Garching, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2010


Distillation (or rectification) is the most important technique for separating fluid mixtures into pure substances. Distillation is extensively used in chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. This article presents a concise description of the state of the art and of novel developments. Distillation, 1. Fundamentals deals with the basic principles of distillation processes, e.g., vapor liquid equilibrium and separation mechanisms in counter current columns. In the focus are binary as well as multi-component systems. [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] Distillation, 2. Equipment deals with the equipment of industrial distillation plants. The design principles of tray columns and packed columns are explained, and typical operational data are given. The objective of [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] Distillation, 3. Processes is the conceptual design of complex distillation processes such as: batch distillation, azeotropic distillation, extractive distillation, and reactive distillation. Some examples of important industrial distillation processes are also presented, i.e., sea water desalination, air separation, crude oil raffination, and production of absolute alcohol.

The article contains sections titled:

2.Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium
2.1.Ideal Systems
2.2.Real Systems
3.Distillation (Single-Stage Distillation)
3.1.Continuous Distillation
3.2.Batch Distillation
4.Rectification (Multi-Stage Distillation)
4.1.Binary Mixtures
4.2.Ternary Mixtures
4.3.Multi-Component Mixtures
4.4.Batch Distillation (Multi-Stage)
4.5.Reactive Distillation