Standard Article

Basic Principles of Chromatography

  1. Georges Guiochon1,2,
  2. Oliver Trapp3

Published Online: 15 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.b05_155.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Guiochon, G. and Trapp, O. 2012. Basic Principles of Chromatography. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Tennessee, Department of Chemistry, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States

  2. 2

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Division of Chemical and Analytical Sciences, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States

  3. 3

    Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2012

Chemistry Terms

Choose one or more boxes to highlight terms.


The article contains sections titled:

2.Historical Development
3.Chromatographic Systems
3.1.Phase Systems Used in Chromatography
3.2.Methods of Implementing Chromatography
4.Theory of Linear Chromatography
4.1.Plate Models
4.1.1.The Craig Model
4.1.2.The Martin - Synge Model
4.2.Statistical Models
4.3.Mass-Balance Models
4.3.1.The Equilibrium - Dispersive Model
4.3.2.Lumped Kinetic Models
4.3.3.The Golay Equation
4.4.The General Rate Model
4.5.Moment Analysis
4.6.Sources of Band Asymmetry and Tailing in Linear Chromatography
5.Flow Rate of the Mobile Phase
5.1.Permeability and Porosity of the Packing
5.1.1.Column Porosity
5.1.2.Column Permeability
5.2.Viscosity of the Mobile Phase
5.2.1.Viscosity of Gases
5.2.2.Viscosity of Liquids
6.The Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria and Retention
6.1.Retention Data
6.1.1.Absolute Data
6.1.2.Relative Data
6.2.Partition Coefficients and Isotherms
6.3.Gas - Solid Adsorption Equilibria
6.4.Liquid - Solid Adsorption Equilibria
6.4.1.Normal-Phase Chromatography
6.4.2.Reversed-Phase Chromatography
7.Band Broadening
7.1.Sources of Band Broadening
7.2.The Plate-Height Equation
7.3.Resolution Between Peaks
7.4.Optimization of Experimental Conditions
7.5.Instrumental Requirements
7.5.1.Injection Systems
7.5.2.Connecting Tubes
7.5.4.Instrument Specifications
8.Qualitative Analysis
8.1.Comparisons of Retention Data
8.2.Precision and Accuracy in the Measurement of Retention Data
8.3.Retention and Chemical Properties
8.4.Selective Detectors
8.4.1.Simple Selective Detectors
8.4.2.Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry ()
8.4.3.Chromatography - IR Spectrometry
9.Quantitative Analysis
9.1.Sampling Problems in Chromatography
9.2.Measurement of Peak Area
9.3.Calibration Techniques
9.4.Sources of Error in Chromatography
10.Theory of Nonlinear Chromatography
10.1.The Ideal Model of Chromatography
10.2.The Equilibrium - Dispersive Model
10.3.Moderate Column Overloading
10.4.Preparative Chromatography
11.Reference Material