Standard Article

Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy

  1. Günter Gauglitz

Published Online: 15 OCT 2008

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.b05_383.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Gauglitz, G. 2008. Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Universität Tübingen, Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Tübingen, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 OCT 2008

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
1.1.Comparison with Other Spectroscopic Methods
1.2.Development and Uses
2.Theoretical Principles
2.1.Electronic States and Orbitals
2.2.Interaction Between Radiation and Matter
2.2.1.Dispersion
2.2.2.Absorption
2.2.3.Scattering
2.2.4.Reflection
2.2.5.Band Intensity
2.3.The Lambert–BeerLaw
2.3.1.Definitions
2.3.2.Deviations from the Lambert - Beer Law
2.4.Photophysics
2.4.1.Energy Level Diagram
2.4.2.Deactivation Processes
2.4.3.Transition Probability and Fine Structure of the Bands
2.5.Chromophores
2.6.Optical Rotatory Dispersion and Circular Dichroism
2.6.1.Generation of Polarized Radiation
2.6.2.Interaction with Polarized Radiation
2.6.3.Optical Rotatory Dispersion
2.6.4.Circular Dichroism and the Cotton Effect
2.6.5.Magnetooptical Effects
3.Optical Components and Spectrometers
3.1.Principles of Spectrometer Construction
3.1.1.Sequential Measurement of Absorption
3.1.2.Multiplex Methods in Absorption Spectroscopy
3.2.Light Sources
3.2.1.Line Sources
3.2.2.Sources of Continuous Radiation
3.2.3.Lasers
3.3.Selection of Wavelengths
3.3.1.Prism Monochromators
3.3.2.Grating Monochromators
3.3.3.Electro-Acoustic and Opto-Acoustic Wavelength Generation
3.4.Polarizers and Analyzers
3.5.Sample Compartments and Cells
3.5.1.Closed Compartments
3.5.2.Modular Arrangements
3.5.3.Open Compartments
3.6.Detectors
3.7.Optical Paths for Special Measuring Requirements
3.7.1.Fluorescence Measurement
3.7.2.Measuring Equipment for Polarimetry, ORD, and CD
3.7.3.Reflection Measurement
3.7.4.Ellipsometry
3.8.Effect of Equipment Parameters
3.9.Connection to Electronic Systems and Computers
4.Uses of UV - VIS Spectroscopy in Absorption, Fluorescence, and Reflection
4.1.Identification of Substances and Determination of Structures
4.2.Quantitative Analysis
4.2.1.Determination of Concentration by Calibration Curves
4.2.2.Classical Multicomponent Analysis
4.2.3.Multivariate Data Analysis
4.2.4.Use in Chromatography
4.3.Fluorimetry
4.3.1.Inner Filter Effects
4.3.2.Fluorescene and Scattering
4.3.3.Excitation Spectra
4.3.4.Applications
4.4.Reflectometry
4.4.1.Diffuse Reflection
4.4.2.Color Measurement
4.4.3.Regular Reflection
4.4.4.Determination of Film Thickness
4.4.5.Ellipsometry
4.5.Resonance Methods
4.5.1.SurfacePlasmon Resonance
4.5.2.Grating Couplers
4.5.3.Other Evanescent Methods
4.5.4.Interferometric Methods
4.6.On-Line Process Control
4.6.1.Process Analysis
4.6.2.Measurement of Film Thicknesses
4.6.3.Optical Sensors
4.7.Measuring Methods Based on Deviations from the Lambert – Beer Law
5.Special Methods
5.1.Derivative Spectroscopy
5.2.Dual-Wavelength Spectroscopy
5.3.Scattering
5.3.1.Turbidimetry
5.3.2.Nephelometry
5.3.3.Photon Correlation Spectroscopy
5.4.Luminescence, Excitation, and Depolarization Spectroscopy, and Measurement of Lifetimes
5.5.Polarimetry
5.5.1.Sugar Analysis
5.5.2.Cellulose Determination
5.5.3.Stereochemical StructuralAnalysis
5.5.4.Use of Optical Activity Induced by a Magnetic Field
5.6.Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS)