Standard Article

Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

  1. Stephen B. Warrington1,
  2. Günther W. H. Höhne2

Published Online: 15 APR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.b06_001.pub3

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Warrington, S. B. and Höhne, G. W. H. 2008. Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Formerly Anasys, IPTME, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom

  2. 2

    Formerly Polymer Technology (SKT), Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2008

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Thermal Analysis
1.1.General Introduction
1.1.1.Definitions
1.1.2.Sources of Information
1.2.Thermogravimetry
1.2.1.Introduction
1.2.2.Instrumentation
1.2.3.Factors Affecting a TG Curve
1.2.4.Applications
1.3.Differential Thermal Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry
1.3.1.Introduction
1.3.2.Instrumentation
1.3.3.Applications
1.3.4.Modulated-Temperature DSC (MT-DSC)
1.4.Simultaneous Techniques
1.4.1.Introduction
1.4.2.Applications
1.5.Evolved Gas Analysis
1.6.Mechanical Methods
1.7.Less Common Techniques
2.Calorimetry
2.1.Introduction
2.2.Methods of Calorimetry
2.2.1.Compensation for Thermal Effects
2.2.2.Measurement of a Temperature Difference
2.2.3.Temperature Modulation
2.3.Calorimeters
2.3.1.Static Calorimeters
2.3.1.1.Isothermal Calorimeters
2.3.1.2.Isoperibolic Calorimeters
2.3.1.3.Adiabatic Calorimeters
2.3.2.Scanning Calorimeters
2.3.2.1.Differential-Temperature Scanning Calorimeters
2.3.2.2.Power-Compensated Scanning Calorimeters
2.3.2.3.Temperature-Modulated Scanning Calorimeters
2.3.3.Chip-Calorimeters
2.4.Applications of Calorimetry
2.4.1.Determination of Thermodynamic Functions
2.4.2.Determination of Heats of Mixing
2.4.3.Combustion Calorimetry
2.4.4.Reaction Calorimetry
2.4.5.Safety Studies

The article provides an introduction to Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, methods which are widely used for characterization of materials and compounds with regard to their thermal and chemical properties. The first chapter is devoted to Thermal Analysis (TA). TA has been applied to almost every field of science, with a strong emphasis on solving problems in materials science and engineering, as well as fundamental chemical investigations. The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of the main TA methods and their applications including the respective instrumentation. In the second chapter, the basics of calorimetry are presented. After the introduction of static and dynamic methods to measure heats or heat flow rates, different types of calorimeters are described, both of classical and of modern design. A section on applications of calorimetry in science and technology follows, where some essential fields such as determination of thermodynamic functions and safety studies are presented in more detail.