Standard Article

Microscopy

  1. Andres Kriete1,
  2. Heinz Gundlach2,
  3. Severin Amelinckx3,
  4. Ludwig Reimer4

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.b06_213.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Kriete, A., Gundlach, H., Amelinckx, S. and Reimer, L. 2005. Microscopy. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

  2. 2

    Carl Zeiss, Jena, Federal Republic of Germany

  3. 3

    Universiteit Antwerpen (RUCA), Antwerpen, Belgium

  4. 4

    Physikalisches Insitut Universität Münster, Münster, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

Chemistry Terms

Choose one or more boxes to highlight terms.

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Modern Optical Microscopy
1.1.Introduction
1.2.Basic Principles of Light Microscopy
1.2.1.Optical Ray Path
1.2.2.Imaging Performance and Resolution
1.2.3.Characteristics and Classification of Lenses
1.2.4.Eyepieces and Condensers
1.3.Illumination and Contrast Generation
1.3.1.Optical Contrast Generation
1.3.2.Fluorescence Microscopy
1.4.Inverted Microscopy
1.5.Optoelectronic Imaging
1.6.Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy
1.6.1.Basic Principles
1.6.2.Imaging Performance
1.6.3.Instrumentation
1.6.4.Imaging Modalities and Biomedical Applications
1.7.Computer Applications in Digital Microscopy
1.7.1.Image Analysis
1.7.2.3D Visualization
1.8.High-Throughput Screening for Histopathology and Drug Development
2.Electron Microscopy
2.1.Introductory Considerations
2.2.Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy (CTEM)
2.2.1.Introduction
2.2.2.Scattering by Atoms: Atomic Scattering Factor
2.2.3.Kinematic Diffraction by Crystals
2.2.3.1.Lattice, Reciprocal Lattice
2.2.3.2.Geometry of Diffraction
2.2.4.Dynamic Diffraction by Crystals
2.2.4.1.General Considerations
2.2.4.2.Basic Equations
2.2.4.3.Dynamic Rocking Curve
2.2.4.4.Anomalous Absorption, Bormann Effect
2.2.4.5.Lattice Fringes
2.2.4.6.Faulted Crystals
2.2.4.7.Moiré Patterns
2.2.5.Operating Modes of the Electron Microscope
2.2.5.1.Microscope Optics
2.2.5.2.High-Resolution, High-Magnification Mode
2.2.5.3.Diffraction Mode
2.2.6.Selected-Area Electron Diffraction (SAED)
2.2.7.Diffraction Contrast Images
2.2.7.1.Imaging Modes
2.2.7.2.Dislocation Contrast
2.2.7.3.Extinction Conditions for Defects
2.2.7.4.Domain Textures
2.2.7.5.Interface Contrast and Domain Contrast
2.2.7.6.Strain Field Contrast
2.2.8.Convergent Beam Diffraction
2.2.8.1.Geometry of Convergent Beam Patterns
2.2.8.2.Point Group Determination
2.2.8.3.Space Group Determination
2.2.8.4.Foil Thickness Determination
2.2.9.High-Resolution Electron Microscopy
2.2.9.1.Image Formation in an Ideal Microscope
2.2.9.2.Image Formation in a Real Microscope
2.2.9.3.Resolution Limiting Factors
2.2.9.4.Image Formation Models
2.2.9.5.Image Interpretation
2.2.10.Scanning Transmission Microscopy
2.2.11.Z-Contrast Images
2.2.12.Analytical Methods
2.2.12.1.X-Ray Microanalysis
2.2.12.2.Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry (EELS)
2.2.13.Specimen Preparation
2.2.13.1.Diffraction Contrast Specimens
2.2.13.2.High-Resolution Specimens
2.2.14.Applications to Specific Materials and Problems
2.2.14.1.Crystal Structures
2.2.14.2.Defects
2.2.14.3.Small Particles
2.2.14.4.Surface Studies
2.2.14.5.Thin Epitaxial Layers
2.2.14.6.“In situ” Studies
2.3.Scanning Electron Microscopy
2.3.1.Introduction
2.3.2.Instrumentation
2.3.2.1.Electron Guns
2.3.2.2.Electron Probe Formation
2.3.2.3.Detectors
2.3.3.Electron–Specimen Interactions
2.3.3.1.Elastic and Inelastic Scattering
2.3.3.2.Electron Diffusion
2.3.3.3.Emission of Secondary and Backscattered Electrons
2.3.3.4.Specimen Charging and Damage
2.3.4.Image Formation and Analysis
2.3.4.1.Topographic and Material Contrast
2.3.4.2.Electron Channeling Effects
2.3.4.3.Imaging and Measurement of Surface Potentials
2.3.4.4.Imaging of Magnetic Fields
2.3.4.5.Electron-Beam Induced Current
2.3.4.6.Cathodoluminescence
2.3.4.7.Special Imaging Methods
2.3.5.Elemental Analysis
2.3.5.1.X-Ray and Auger Electron Emission
2.3.5.2.X-Ray Spectrometers
2.3.5.3.X-Ray Microanalysis
2.3.5.4.Special X-Ray Techniques