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Air

  1. John Wolf1,
  2. Gerhard Manier2,
  3. Thomas Eikmann3,
  4. Gerhard Scholl4,
  5. Gerhard Feldhaus5,
  6. Klaus Grefen6,
  7. Peter Bruckmann7,
  8. Hans-Ulrich Pfeffer8,
  9. Klaus Lützke9,
  10. Eberhard Schmidt10,
  11. Torsten Schmidt11,
  12. Theo Pilhofer12,
  13. Helmut Krill retired13,
  14. Harald Menig14,
  15. Stephan Schirz15,
  16. Helmut Pollack16,
  17. Walter Simmler (retired)17

Published Online: 15 JAN 2008

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.b07_403.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Wolf, J., Manier, G., Eikmann, T., Scholl, G., Feldhaus, G., Grefen, K., Bruckmann, P., Pfeffer, H.-U., Lützke, K., Schmidt, E., Schmidt, T., Pilhofer, T., Krill, H., Menig, H., Schirz, S., Pollack, H. and Simmler, W. 2008. Air. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN, Düsseldorf, Germany

  2. 2

    Institut für Meteorologie der Technischen Hochschule, Darmstadt, Germany

  3. 3

    Universität Gießen, Hygiene-Institut, Gießen, Germany

  4. 4

    Bad Oeynhausen, Germany

  5. 5

    Bonn, Germany

  6. 6

    Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN, Düsseldorf, Germany

  7. 7

    Landesumweltamt Nordrhein–Westfalen, Essen, Germany

  8. 8

    Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Essen, Germany

  9. 9

    RWTÜV Anlagentechnik GmbH, Essen, Germany

  10. 10

    Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany

  11. 11

    Engelhard Process Chemicals GmbH, Hannover, Germany

  12. 12

    QVF Glastechnik GmbH, Wiesbaden, Germany

  13. 13

    Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt/Main, Germany

  14. 14

    Fachhochschule Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt/Main, Germany

  15. 15

    Fachhochschule Münster, Fachbereich Versorgungstechnik, Steinfurt, Germany

  16. 16

    Gelsenkirchen, Germany

  17. 17

    Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2008

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction: Emissions due to the Chemical Industry
1.1.Greenhouse Gases
1.2.Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxides
1.3.Volatile Organic Compounds
1.4.Emission Inventories
2.Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere
2.1.Chemistry of the Atmosphere
2.1.1.Formation of the Primeval Atmosphere
2.1.2.Formation of the Present Atmosphere
2.1.3.Composition of the Present Atmosphere
2.1.4.Trace Gas Cycles
2.1.5.The Aerosol
2.2.Energetics of the Atmosphere
2.2.1.Solar Radiation
2.2.2.Infrared Radiation
2.2.3.Radiation Equilibrium
2.2.4.Energy Balance
2.3.Dynamics of the Atmosphere
2.3.1.Forces
2.3.2.Motions
2.3.3.Stability
2.4.Air-Pollution Control
2.4.1.Methods of Calculating the Dispersion of Pollution
2.4.1.1.Empirical Formulas
2.4.1.2.Gauss Formulas
2.4.1.3.Diffusion Equation
2.4.1.4.Stationary Solution of the Diffusion Equation
2.4.1.5.Particle Models
2.4.2.Use of the Diffusion Calculation
2.4.3.Environmental Compatibility and Simulation of the Environment
3.Effects of Air Pollutants
3.1.Effects on Humans
3.2.General Effects
3.2.1.Specific Pollutants
3.2.2.Persons Needing Special Protection
3.2.3.Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity, and Teratogenicity
3.3.Environmentally Relevant Air Pollutants
3.3.1.Sulfur Dioxide
3.3.2.Nitrogen Oxides
3.3.3.Ozone
3.3.4.Carbon Monoxide
3.3.5.Dusts
3.3.6.Lead
3.3.7.Cadmium
3.3.8.Arsenic
3.3.9.Benzene
3.3.10.Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
3.3.11.Diesel Motor Emissions
3.3.12.Dioxins and Furans
3.4.Effects on Plants
3.4.1.Relationship between Immission and Effect
3.4.2.Effect of Individual Pollutants
3.4.2.1.Sulfur Dioxide
3.4.2.2.Hydrogen Fluoride
3.4.2.3.Hydrogen Chloride and Chlorine
3.4.2.4.Nitrogen Dioxide and Ammonia
3.4.2.5.Hydrogen Sulfide
3.4.2.6.Ethylene
3.4.2.7.Ozone and Other Photooxidants
3.4.2.8.Dust
3.4.2.9.Acid Rain
4.Laws and Technical Regulations
4.1.Introduction
4.2.Federal Antipollution Law
4.3.Federal Statutory Antipollution Regulations Relating to Air Pollution and Plant Safety
4.3.1.First BImSchV
4.3.2.Second BImSchV
4.3.3.Third BImSchV
4.3.4.Fourth BImSchV
4.3.5.Seventh BImSchV
4.3.6.Eleventh BImSchV
4.3.7.Twelfth BImSchV
4.3.8.Thirteenth BImSchV
4.3.9.Seventeenth BImSchV
4.3.10.Nineteenth BImSchV
4.3.11.Twentieth BImSchV
4.3.12.Twenty-First BImSchV
4.3.13.Twenty-Second BImSchV
4.3.14.Twenty-Third BImSchV
4.3.15.Twenty-Fifth BImSchV
4.3.16.Twenty-Seventh BImSchV
4.3.17.Other Federal Regulations
4.3.18.Smog Regulations of the Länder
4.4.General Administrative Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution
4.4.1.TA Luft
4.4.2.Fourth BImSchVwV: Determination of Air Pollution in Test Areas
4.4.3.Fifth BImSchVwV: Register of Emissions in Test Areas
4.5.Technical Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution
4.5.1.National Regulations
4.5.2.European Regulations
4.5.3.International Regulations
5.Air Pollution Monitoring
5.1.Measurement Planning
5.1.1.Types of Air Pollution Monitoring
5.1.2.Planning of Pollution Measurements
5.1.2.1.Measurement Networks (General Air Pollution Monitoring)
5.1.2.2.Evaluation of Data; Period and Frequency of Measurements
5.1.2.3.Planning Measurements on Industrial Plants
5.2.Quality Assurance
5.2.1.Procedure-Based Methods
5.2.2.User-Based Methods
5.3.Measuring Methods
5.3.1.Measuring Methods for Inorganic Gases
5.3.1.1.Automatic Measuring Methods
5.3.1.2.Calibration of Automatic Measuring Methods
5.3.1.3.Manual Methods
5.3.2.Measurement and Analysis of Particulate Atmospheric Impurities
5.3.2.1.Measurement of Particle Mass and Particle Fractions
5.3.2.2.Measurement of Particle Numbers and Size Distributions
5.3.2.3.Measurement of Inorganic Components in Suspended Particle Matter
5.3.2.3.1.Measurement of Major Ionic Compounds in Suspended Particulate Matter
5.3.2.3.2.Measurement of Heavy Metals and Metalloid Compounds in Suspended Particulate Matter
5.3.2.3.3.Measurement of Soot (Elemental Carbon)
5.3.2.3.4.Measurement of Fibers
5.3.3.Measurement of Deposition
5.3.3.1.Measurement of Total (Bulk) Deposition
5.3.3.2.Measurement of Wet Deposition
5.3.3.3.Special Sampling Devices for Deposition Measurements
5.3.3.4.Analysis
5.3.4.Optical Methods of Remote Measurement
5.3.4.1.Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
5.3.4.2.Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy
5.3.4.3.Long-Path-Length Absorption Spectroscopy with Tunable Diode Lasers
5.3.4.4.Differential Adsorption LIDAR
5.3.4.5.Correlation Spectroscopy and Gas Filter Correlation Spectroscopy
5.3.4.6.Significance of Remote Measurement Methods
5.3.4.7.Measurement of Unstable Trace Substances
5.3.5.Measurement of Organic Atmospheric Pollutants
5.3.5.1.Overview
5.3.5.2.Summation Methods (Total-C Measurements)
5.3.5.3.Chromatographic Methods
5.3.5.3.1.Chromatographic Methods for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
5.3.5.3.2.Chromatographic Methods for Low-Volatility Organic Compounds
5.3.5.4.Determination of Organic Compounds with Functional Groups
5.3.6.Olfactometric Methods
5.3.7.Screening Measurements
6.Emission Measurements
6.1.Introduction
6.2.Objectives and Planning of Measurements
6.3.Requirements for Measurement Techniques and Measurement Stations
6.3.1.Quality of Measurement Methods
6.3.2.Choice and Equipment of Measurement Stations
6.4.Requirements for Continuous Measurement and Associated Computer Systems
6.4.1.Minimum Legal Requirements
6.4.2.Testing the Suitability of Continuous Measurement Methods and Evaluation Computers
6.4.3.Testing and Calibration of Measurement Equipment
6.5.Physical State Parameters, Reference Value Measurements, and Evaluation Computers
6.5.1.Temperature
6.5.2.Moisture Content
6.5.3.Carbon Dioxide Content
6.5.4.Oxygen Content
6.5.5.Evaluation Computers
6.6.Measurement of Gas Velocity and Flow Rate
6.7.Measurement of Particles
6.7.1.Sampling
6.7.2.Discontinuous Methods
6.7.3.Continuous Methods
6.7.3.1.Optical Methods
6.7.3.2.Radiometric Methods
6.7.4.Particle Size of Dusts
6.7.5.Heavy Metals as Dust Constituents
6.8.Measurement of Gaseous Inorganic Emissions
6.8.1.Sampling
6.8.2.Sulfur Oxides
6.8.2.1.Discontinuous Methods
6.8.2.2.Continuous Methods
6.8.3.Nitrogen Oxides
6.8.4.Carbon Monoxide
6.8.5.Fluorine Compounds
6.8.6.Chlorine Compounds
6.8.7.Hydrogen Sulfide
6.8.8.Ammonia
6.9.Measurement of Gaseous Organic Compounds
6.9.1.Sampling
6.9.2.Measurement of Total-C
6.9.3.Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
6.9.3.1.Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDD/F)
6.9.3.2.Polychlorinated Biphenyls
6.9.3.3.Chlorobenzenes and Chlorophenols
6.9.3.4.Volatile Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
6.9.3.5.Chlorofluorocarbons
6.9.4.Hydrocarbons
6.9.5.Other Compounds
6.10.Measurement of Odor Emissions
7.Separation and Purification
7.1.Separation of Solid and Liquid Particles from Gases
7.1.1.Introduction
7.1.2.Characterization of Particle Separation
7.1.3.Gas Cyclones
7.1.3.1.Mode of Operation and Basic Designs
7.1.3.2.Collection Efficiency and Pressure Drop
7.1.3.3.Operational Characteristics
7.1.4.Wet Scrubbers
7.1.4.1.Mode of Operation and Basic Designs
7.1.4.2.Collection Efficiency and Pressure Drop
7.1.5.Filters
7.1.5.1.General
7.1.5.2.Deep-Bed Filters
7.1.5.3.Surface Filters
7.1.5.4.Granular-Bed Filters
7.1.6.Electrical Precipitators
7.1.6.1.Mode of Operation and Basic Designs
7.1.6.2.Design Calculations
7.2.Waste-Gas Purification by Thermalor Catalytic Reactions
7.2.1.Fundamentals
7.2.1.1.Types of Reaction
7.2.1.2.Reaction Engineering
7.2.1.2.1.Homogeneous Gas-Phase Reactions
7.2.1.2.2.Heterogeneous Gas-Phase Reactions, Catalytic Waste-Gas Purification
7.2.1.3.Process Selection and Plant Concepts
7.2.1.4.Operational Check
7.2.2.Thermal Processes for Waste-Gas Purification
7.2.2.1.Oxidation Processes
7.2.2.1.1.Waste-Gas Disposal in Furnaces
7.2.2.1.2.Thermal Combustion
7.2.2.1.3.Combustion in Flares
7.2.2.1.4.Safety Engineering in Thermal Waste-Gas Purification
7.2.2.2.Reduction Processes
7.2.2.2.1.Staged Combustion
7.2.2.2.2.Thermal Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides
7.2.3.Catalytic Waste-Gas Purification Processes
7.2.3.1.Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Flue Gases and Process Off-Gases
7.2.3.2.Engine Exhaust Emission Control
7.2.3.3.Gas-Turbine Exhaust Emission Control
7.2.3.4.Catalytic Purification of Claus Plant Off-Gases
7.2.3.5.Catalytic Oxidation in Industrial Off-Gas Streams
7.3.Absorption
7.3.1.Introduction
7.3.2.Basic Principles of Absorption Processes
7.3.3.Operating Principles of Absorption Apparatus
7.3.4.Absorption Apparatus
7.3.5.Selection of Equipment
7.4.Adsorption
7.4.1.Fundamentals
7.4.2.Industrial Adsorbents
7.4.3.Design Criteria for Adsorbers
7.4.4.Adsorber Designs
7.4.5.Plant Concepts
7.4.6.Adsorption Processes
7.4.7.Recycling and Disposal of Spent Adsorbents
7.5.Biological Processes
7.5.1.Overview and Classification
7.5.2.Process Engineering Principles
7.5.2.1.Biological Conditions
7.5.2.2.Physicochemical Conditions
7.5.3.Biofilters
7.5.4.Bioscrubbers
7.6.Flue-Gas Purification in the Incineration of Hazardous Waste
8.Photochemical Degradation
8.1.Introduction
8.2.Natural and Anthropogenic Emissions
8.3.Reaction Cycles in the Atmosphere
8.3.1.The Troposphere
8.3.2.The Stratosphere
8.4.Interaction with Surface Layers of Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments
8.5.Measurement and Computation of Degradability
8.5.1.Lifetime in the Homogeneous Gas Phase
8.5.2.Lifetimes of Adsorbates Aerosols
8.5.3.Assessment and Evaluation
9.Acknowledgement