Standard Article


  1. John Wolf1,
  2. Gerhard Manier2,
  3. Thomas Eikmann3,
  4. Gerhard Scholl4,
  5. Gerhard Feldhaus5,
  6. Klaus Grefen6,
  7. Peter Bruckmann7,
  8. Hans-Ulrich Pfeffer8,
  9. Klaus Lützke9,
  10. Eberhard Schmidt10,
  11. Torsten Schmidt11,
  12. Theo Pilhofer12,
  13. Helmut Krill retired13,
  14. Harald Menig14,
  15. Stephan Schirz15,
  16. Helmut Pollack16,
  17. Walter Simmler (retired)17

Published Online: 15 JAN 2008

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.b07_403.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Wolf, J., Manier, G., Eikmann, T., Scholl, G., Feldhaus, G., Grefen, K., Bruckmann, P., Pfeffer, H.-U., Lützke, K., Schmidt, E., Schmidt, T., Pilhofer, T., Krill, H., Menig, H., Schirz, S., Pollack, H. and Simmler, W. 2008. Air. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN, Düsseldorf, Germany

  2. 2

    Institut für Meteorologie der Technischen Hochschule, Darmstadt, Germany

  3. 3

    Universität Gießen, Hygiene-Institut, Gießen, Germany

  4. 4

    Bad Oeynhausen, Germany

  5. 5

    Bonn, Germany

  6. 6

    Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN, Düsseldorf, Germany

  7. 7

    Landesumweltamt Nordrhein–Westfalen, Essen, Germany

  8. 8

    Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Essen, Germany

  9. 9

    RWTÜV Anlagentechnik GmbH, Essen, Germany

  10. 10

    Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany

  11. 11

    Engelhard Process Chemicals GmbH, Hannover, Germany

  12. 12

    QVF Glastechnik GmbH, Wiesbaden, Germany

  13. 13

    Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt/Main, Germany

  14. 14

    Fachhochschule Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt/Main, Germany

  15. 15

    Fachhochschule Münster, Fachbereich Versorgungstechnik, Steinfurt, Germany

  16. 16

    Gelsenkirchen, Germany

  17. 17

    Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2008

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)


The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction: Emissions due to the Chemical Industry
1.1.Greenhouse Gases
1.2.Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxides
1.3.Volatile Organic Compounds
1.4.Emission Inventories
2.Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere
2.1.Chemistry of the Atmosphere
2.1.1.Formation of the Primeval Atmosphere
2.1.2.Formation of the Present Atmosphere
2.1.3.Composition of the Present Atmosphere
2.1.4.Trace Gas Cycles
2.1.5.The Aerosol
2.2.Energetics of the Atmosphere
2.2.1.Solar Radiation
2.2.2.Infrared Radiation
2.2.3.Radiation Equilibrium
2.2.4.Energy Balance
2.3.Dynamics of the Atmosphere
2.4.Air-Pollution Control
2.4.1.Methods of Calculating the Dispersion of Pollution Formulas Formulas Equation Solution of the Diffusion Equation Models
2.4.2.Use of the Diffusion Calculation
2.4.3.Environmental Compatibility and Simulation of the Environment
3.Effects of Air Pollutants
3.1.Effects on Humans
3.2.General Effects
3.2.1.Specific Pollutants
3.2.2.Persons Needing Special Protection
3.2.3.Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity, and Teratogenicity
3.3.Environmentally Relevant Air Pollutants
3.3.1.Sulfur Dioxide
3.3.2.Nitrogen Oxides
3.3.4.Carbon Monoxide
3.3.10.Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
3.3.11.Diesel Motor Emissions
3.3.12.Dioxins and Furans
3.4.Effects on Plants
3.4.1.Relationship between Immission and Effect
3.4.2.Effect of Individual Pollutants Dioxide Fluoride Chloride and Chlorine Dioxide and Ammonia Sulfide and Other Photooxidants Rain
4.Laws and Technical Regulations
4.2.Federal Antipollution Law
4.3.Federal Statutory Antipollution Regulations Relating to Air Pollution and Plant Safety
4.3.1.First BImSchV
4.3.2.Second BImSchV
4.3.3.Third BImSchV
4.3.4.Fourth BImSchV
4.3.5.Seventh BImSchV
4.3.6.Eleventh BImSchV
4.3.7.Twelfth BImSchV
4.3.8.Thirteenth BImSchV
4.3.9.Seventeenth BImSchV
4.3.10.Nineteenth BImSchV
4.3.11.Twentieth BImSchV
4.3.12.Twenty-First BImSchV
4.3.13.Twenty-Second BImSchV
4.3.14.Twenty-Third BImSchV
4.3.15.Twenty-Fifth BImSchV
4.3.16.Twenty-Seventh BImSchV
4.3.17.Other Federal Regulations
4.3.18.Smog Regulations of the Länder
4.4.General Administrative Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution
4.4.1.TA Luft
4.4.2.Fourth BImSchVwV: Determination of Air Pollution in Test Areas
4.4.3.Fifth BImSchVwV: Register of Emissions in Test Areas
4.5.Technical Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution
4.5.1.National Regulations
4.5.2.European Regulations
4.5.3.International Regulations
5.Air Pollution Monitoring
5.1.Measurement Planning
5.1.1.Types of Air Pollution Monitoring
5.1.2.Planning of Pollution Measurements Networks (General Air Pollution Monitoring) of Data; Period and Frequency of Measurements Measurements on Industrial Plants
5.2.Quality Assurance
5.2.1.Procedure-Based Methods
5.2.2.User-Based Methods
5.3.Measuring Methods
5.3.1.Measuring Methods for Inorganic Gases Measuring Methods of Automatic Measuring Methods Methods
5.3.2.Measurement and Analysis of Particulate Atmospheric Impurities of Particle Mass and Particle Fractions of Particle Numbers and Size Distributions of Inorganic Components in Suspended Particle Matter of Major Ionic Compounds in Suspended Particulate Matter of Heavy Metals and Metalloid Compounds in Suspended Particulate Matter of Soot (Elemental Carbon) of Fibers
5.3.3.Measurement of Deposition of Total (Bulk) Deposition of Wet Deposition Sampling Devices for Deposition Measurements
5.3.4.Optical Methods of Remote Measurement Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Absorption Spectroscopy with Tunable Diode Lasers Adsorption LIDAR Spectroscopy and Gas Filter Correlation Spectroscopy of Remote Measurement Methods of Unstable Trace Substances
5.3.5.Measurement of Organic Atmospheric Pollutants Methods (Total-C Measurements) Methods Methods for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Methods for Low-Volatility Organic Compounds of Organic Compounds with Functional Groups
5.3.6.Olfactometric Methods
5.3.7.Screening Measurements
6.Emission Measurements
6.2.Objectives and Planning of Measurements
6.3.Requirements for Measurement Techniques and Measurement Stations
6.3.1.Quality of Measurement Methods
6.3.2.Choice and Equipment of Measurement Stations
6.4.Requirements for Continuous Measurement and Associated Computer Systems
6.4.1.Minimum Legal Requirements
6.4.2.Testing the Suitability of Continuous Measurement Methods and Evaluation Computers
6.4.3.Testing and Calibration of Measurement Equipment
6.5.Physical State Parameters, Reference Value Measurements, and Evaluation Computers
6.5.2.Moisture Content
6.5.3.Carbon Dioxide Content
6.5.4.Oxygen Content
6.5.5.Evaluation Computers
6.6.Measurement of Gas Velocity and Flow Rate
6.7.Measurement of Particles
6.7.2.Discontinuous Methods
6.7.3.Continuous Methods Methods Methods
6.7.4.Particle Size of Dusts
6.7.5.Heavy Metals as Dust Constituents
6.8.Measurement of Gaseous Inorganic Emissions
6.8.2.Sulfur Oxides Methods Methods
6.8.3.Nitrogen Oxides
6.8.4.Carbon Monoxide
6.8.5.Fluorine Compounds
6.8.6.Chlorine Compounds
6.8.7.Hydrogen Sulfide
6.9.Measurement of Gaseous Organic Compounds
6.9.2.Measurement of Total-C
6.9.3.Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Dibenzodioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) Biphenyls and Chlorophenols Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
6.9.5.Other Compounds
6.10.Measurement of Odor Emissions
7.Separation and Purification
7.1.Separation of Solid and Liquid Particles from Gases
7.1.2.Characterization of Particle Separation
7.1.3.Gas Cyclones of Operation and Basic Designs Efficiency and Pressure Drop Characteristics
7.1.4.Wet Scrubbers of Operation and Basic Designs Efficiency and Pressure Drop
7.1.5.Filters Filters Filters Filters
7.1.6.Electrical Precipitators of Operation and Basic Designs Calculations
7.2.Waste-Gas Purification by Thermalor Catalytic Reactions
7.2.1.Fundamentals of Reaction Engineering Gas-Phase Reactions Gas-Phase Reactions, Catalytic Waste-Gas Purification Selection and Plant Concepts Check
7.2.2.Thermal Processes for Waste-Gas Purification Processes Disposal in Furnaces Combustion in Flares Engineering in Thermal Waste-Gas Purification Processes Combustion Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides
7.2.3.Catalytic Waste-Gas Purification Processes Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Flue Gases and Process Off-Gases Exhaust Emission Control Exhaust Emission Control Purification of Claus Plant Off-Gases Oxidation in Industrial Off-Gas Streams
7.3.2.Basic Principles of Absorption Processes
7.3.3.Operating Principles of Absorption Apparatus
7.3.4.Absorption Apparatus
7.3.5.Selection of Equipment
7.4.2.Industrial Adsorbents
7.4.3.Design Criteria for Adsorbers
7.4.4.Adsorber Designs
7.4.5.Plant Concepts
7.4.6.Adsorption Processes
7.4.7.Recycling and Disposal of Spent Adsorbents
7.5.Biological Processes
7.5.1.Overview and Classification
7.5.2.Process Engineering Principles Conditions Conditions
7.6.Flue-Gas Purification in the Incineration of Hazardous Waste
8.Photochemical Degradation
8.2.Natural and Anthropogenic Emissions
8.3.Reaction Cycles in the Atmosphere
8.3.1.The Troposphere
8.3.2.The Stratosphere
8.4.Interaction with Surface Layers of Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments
8.5.Measurement and Computation of Degradability
8.5.1.Lifetime in the Homogeneous Gas Phase
8.5.2.Lifetimes of Adsorbates Aerosols
8.5.3.Assessment and Evaluation