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Soil

  1. Stephen Nortcliff1,
  2. Herwig Hulpke2,
  3. Claus G. Bannick3,
  4. Konstantin Terytze3,
  5. Gerhard Knoop2,
  6. Michael Bredemeier4,
  7. Hubert Schulte-Bisping5,
  8. Karl Auerswald6,
  9. Norbert Litz3,
  10. Robert Mayer7,
  11. Alexander Stoy8,
  12. Kassem Alef9,
  13. Helmut Kerndorff3,
  14. Gerd Crössmann10,
  15. Thomas Eikmann11,
  16. Volker Franzius3,
  17. Detlef Grimsky3,
  18. Norbert Möhlenbruch12,
  19. Peter-Christoph Storm13,
  20. Ulf Dworshak14

Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.b07_613.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Nortcliff, S., Hulpke, H., Bannick, C. G., Terytze, K., Knoop, G., Bredemeier, M., Schulte-Bisping, H., Auerswald, K., Litz, N., Mayer, R., Stoy, A., Alef, K., Kerndorff, H., Crössmann, G., Eikmann, T., Franzius, V., Grimsky, D., Möhlenbruch, N., Storm, P.-C. and Dworshak, U. 2006. Soil. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Reading, Department of Soil Science, Reading, United Kingdom

  2. 2

    Bayer AG, WV Umweltschutz, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany

  3. 3

    Umweltbundesamt, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany

  4. 4

    Universität Göttingen, Forschungszentrum Waldökosysteme, Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany

  5. 5

    Universität Göttingen, Institut für Bodenkunde, Göttingen, Federal Republic of Germany

  6. 6

    Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Grünlandlehre, Freising, Federal Republic of Germany

  7. 7

    Universität Gh Kassel, Fachbereich Stadtplanung/Landschaftsplanung, Kassel, Federal Republic of Germany

  8. 8

    Fachhochschule Kiel, Fachbereich Landbau, Rendsburg, Federal Republic of Germany

  9. 9

    Universität Bayreuth, Lehrstuhl für Ökologische Chemie, Bayreuth, Federal Republic of Germany

  10. 10

    Landwirtschaftliche Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Münster, Federal Republic of Germany

  11. 11

    Universität Gießen, Hygiene-Institut, Gießen, Federal Republic of Germany

  12. 12

    Rheinbraun AG, Abt. Forstwirtschaft, Erftstadt, Federal Republic of Germany

  13. 13

    Wangen im Allgäu, Federal Republic of Germany

  14. 14

    Rheinbraun AG, Abt. Forstwirtschaft, Erfstadt, Federal Republic of Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2006

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 OCT 2011)

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Definition
2.Ecological and Political Aspects of Soil Protection
3.Function and Utilization of Soil
3.1.Soil Ecosystems
3.1.1.Introduction
3.1.2.Ecological Soil Functions
3.1.2.1.Regulating Functions
3.1.2.2.Habitat Function for Organisms in and upon the Soil
3.1.3.Productive Function
3.1.3.1.Agriculture
3.1.3.2.Forestry
3.1.4.Other Soil Functions
3.1.4.1.Utilization of Wastes
3.1.4.2.Raw Material Deposits
3.2.Land Utilization and Soil Destruction (Statistics)
3.2.1.Introduction
3.2.2.Land Utilization
3.2.3.Soil Destruction
3.2.4.Forecast
4.Physical Damage to Soils
4.1.Compaction
4.2.Erosion
4.3.Building Over and Sealing
5.Effects of Anthropogenic Substances on Soil
5.1.Persistent Pollutants
5.1.1.Definition and Criteria
5.1.2.Sources and Entry Paths
5.1.3.Processes in Terrestrial Soils
5.1.4.Persistent Organic Compounds
5.1.4.1.Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
5.1.4.2.Aromatics and Chlorinated Aromatics
5.1.4.3.Nitroaromatics and Aromatic Amines
5.1.4.4.Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and Dibenzofurans (PCDFs)
5.1.4.5.Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
5.1.4.6.Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
5.2.Acid Precipitation
5.2.1.Definitions
5.2.2.Sources of Acidity in Atmospheric Deposition
5.2.3.Source and Sink Processes for Acidity in the Atmosphere and in the Soil Environment
5.2.4.Direct Effects of Acid Deposition on Soils
5.2.5.Effects Mediated by Organisms (Indirect Effects)
5.2.5.1.Soil Acidification by Canopy Leaching
5.2.5.2.Acidification by Uptake of Nitrogen Compounds
5.2.5.3.Acidification by Accumulation of Organic Matter
5.2.5.4.Acidification by Humus Disintegration
5.2.6.Consequences of Soil Acidification
5.2.7.Field Observations of Soil Acidification
5.3.Fertilizers and Agricultural Chemicals
5.3.1.Fertilizers
5.3.1.1.Development of Fertilization
5.3.1.2.Legal Framework of Fertilization
5.3.1.3.Forms of Fertilizers
5.3.1.4.Effects of Fertilizers in the Soil
5.3.1.4.1.Nutrient Contents and Nutrient Losses
5.3.1.4.2.Soil Reaction
5.3.1.4.3.Humus Content
5.3.1.4.4.Heavy Metals and Organic Pollutants
5.3.2.Pesticides
5.3.2.1.Introduction
5.3.2.2.Side-Effects
5.4.Effects of Abandoned Waste Disposal Sites
5.4.1.Introduction
5.4.2.Material Contents in Groundwater Affected by Abandoned Waste Disposal Sites
5.4.3.Contamination Criteria and their Quantification
5.4.3.1.Contamination Factor
5.4.3.2.Emission Detection Frequency
5.4.3.3.Mean Emission Concentration
6.Measurement and Evaluation of Soil Pollution
6.1.Sampling and Investigation of Soil Pollutants
6.1.1.Introduction
6.1.2.Sampling
6.1.3.Sample Pretreatment
6.1.4.Sample Preparation
6.1.5.Measurement
6.1.6.Evaluation
6.1.7.Quality Assurance
6.1.8.Analytical Procedures for Selected Inorganic and Organic Soil Pollutants
6.1.8.1.Analysis of Cadmium and Thallium
6.1.8.1.1.Sample Preparation
6.1.8.1.2.Measurement
6.1.8.2.Analysis of Organic Soil Pollutants
6.1.8.2.1.Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
6.1.8.2.2.Petroleum Hydrocarbons
6.2.Evaluation Concept
6.2.1.Uptake Paths to Humans
6.2.1.1.Inhalation Uptake
6.2.1.2.Oral Uptake
6.2.1.3.Uptake via the Skin
6.2.2.Relevant Soil Uses
6.2.3.Evaluation Criteria
7.Remediation of Soil and Land
7.1.Remediation Methods
7.1.1.Introduction
7.1.2.Methods and Processes for Remediation
7.1.2.1.Overview
7.1.2.2.Soil Treatment Processes
7.1.2.2.1.Thermal Soil Treatment
7.1.2.2.2.Physicochemical Soil Treatment/Soil Washing
7.1.2.2.3.Microbiological Soil Treatment
7.1.2.2.4.Soil Vapor Extraction Processes
7.1.2.3.Safeguarding Technologies
7.1.3.Costs for Soil Remediation
7.1.4.Outlook
7.2.Recultivation
7.2.1.Definition
7.2.2.Demands on Recultivation
7.2.2.1.Recultivation Goals
7.2.2.2.Initial Substrata
7.2.3.Soil-Physical Properties
7.2.3.1.Silvicultural Recultivation
7.2.3.2.Agricultural Recultivation
7.2.4.Soil-Chemical Properties
7.2.4.1.Silvicultural Recultivation
7.2.4.2.Agricultural Recultivation
7.2.5.Soil Biology
8.Legal Aspects of Soil Protection
8.1.Foundations of Soil Protection Law
8.1.1.Land Law
8.1.2.Soil Protection Law
8.2.Foundations of Soil Protection Policy
8.2.1.Soil Protection in Germany
8.2.2.International Soil Protection
8.3.Constitutional Soil Protection
8.4.Soil Protection under Administrative Law
8.5.Soil Protection Goals
8.5.1.Soil
8.5.2.Protection of Soil Functions
8.5.3.Impairments of the Soil
8.5.4.Soil Protection by Provision and Aftercare
8.5.5.Direct and Indirect Soil Protection
8.5.6.Relative and Absolute Soil Protection
8.6.Soil Protection Measures
8.6.1.Types of Measure
8.6.2.Classification of Soil Protection Measures
8.6.3.Measures against Material Soil Impairments
8.6.4.Measures against Nonmaterial Soil Impairments
8.7.Development Trends
8.7.1.Further Development of German Soil Protection Law since 1985
8.7.2.The German Soil Protection Act 1998
8.7.3.Soil Protection in the Draft of an Environmental Code (UGB)