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Biocatalysis, 3. Nonimmobilized Biocatalysts in Industrial Fine Chemical Synthesis

  1. Andreas Liese1,
  2. Stephan Lütz2

Published Online: 15 JUL 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.h17_h01.pub2

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Liese, A. and Lütz, S. 2009. Biocatalysis, 3. Nonimmobilized Biocatalysts in Industrial Fine Chemical Synthesis. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Universität Münster, Institut für Biochemie, Münster, Germany

  2. 2

    Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Biotechnologie, Jülich, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2009


The article contains sections titled:

2.Examples of Reactions
2.1.Reductions Catalyzed by Oxidoreductases (E.C. 1)
2.1.1.Ketone Reduction with Whole Cells of Neurospora crassa (E.C.
2.1.2.Ketoester Reduction with Cell Extract of Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus (E.C.
2.1.3.Enantioselective Reduction with Whole Cells of Candida sorbophila (EC 1.1.X.X)
2.1.4.Production of Chiral α-Hydroxy Acids with d-Lactate Dehydrogenase (E.C. from Leuconostoc mesenteroides
2.1.5.Converting Ketoacid Acetals to Acetal Amino Acids with l-Phenylalanine Dehydrogenase (PheDH, E.C. from Thermoactinomyces intermedius
2.2.Oxidations Catalyzed by Oxidoreductases (E.C. 1)
2.2.1.Alcohol Oxidation with Whole Cells of Gluconobacter suboxydans (E.C.
2.2.2.Kinetic Resolution by Oxidation of Primary Alcohols Catalyzed by Whole Cells from Rhodococcus erythropolis (E.C. 1.X.X.X)
2.2.3.Hydroxylation of Nicotinic Acid (Niacin) Catalyzed by Whole Cells of Achromobacter xylosoxidans (E.C.
2.2.4.Reduction of Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration by Catalase (E.C.
2.2.5.Bioconversion of N-Butylglucamine with Whole Cells of Gluconobacter oxydans (E.C.
2.3.Hydrolytic Cleavage and Formation of C[BOND]O and C[BOND]N Bonds by Hydrolases (E.C. 3)
2.3.1.Kinetic Resolution of a Diester by Protease Subtilisin Carlsberg from Bacillus sp. (E.C. ,
2.3.2.Kinetic Resolution of α-Amino Acid Amides Catalyzed by Aminopeptidase from Pseudomonas putida (E.C.
2.3.3.Production of l-Methionine by Kinetic Resolution with Aminoacylase of Aspergillus oryzae (E.C.
2.3.4.Synthesis of β-Lactam Antibiotics Catalyzed by Penicillin Acylase (E.C.
2.3.5.Enantioselective Synthesis of an Aspartame Precursor with Thermolysin from Bacillus proteolicus (E.C.
2.3.6.Hydrolysis of Heterocyclic Nitriles by Nitrilase/Hydroxylase from Agrobacterium sp. (E.C.
2.3.7.Resolution of 3,3,3-Trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionamide with Amidase from Klebsiella oxytoca (E.C. 3.5.X.X)
2.4.Formation of C[BOND]C, C[BOND]O, and C[BOND]N Bonds by Lyases (E.C. 4)
2.4.1.Hydrocyanation of m-Phenoxybenzaldehyde with Oxynitrilase from Hevea brasiliensis (E.C.
2.4.2.Synthesis of Carnitine Catalyzed by Carnitine Dehydratase in Whole Cells (E.C.
2.4.3.Synthesis of l-Dopa Catalyzed by Tyrosine Phenol Lyase from Erwinia herbicola (E.C.
2.4.4.Synthesis of Nicotinamide Catalyzed by Nitrile Hydratase from Rhodococcus erythropolis (EC ,
2.4.5.Synthesis of Mandelic Acid with Nitrilase (E.C. ,
2.5.Epimerization of Glucosamine Catalysed by Epimerase from E. coli (E.C.

This article focuses on the use of nonimmobilized biocatalysts for synthesis of fine chemicals in industry. More than 20 processes using isolated enzymes or suspensions are presented.