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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  1. Siegfried Stapf1,
  2. Song-I Han2

Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.l17_l01

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

How to Cite

Stapf, S. and Han, S.-I. 2007. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Technical Physics II, Technische Universität Ilmenau, 98684 Ilmenau, Germany

  2. 2

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, CA 93106-9510, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

1.Introduction
2.Principles of Spatial Encoding in NMR
2.1.Repetition of NMR Facts
2.2.k Space
2.3.Phase Encoding and Frequency Encoding
2.4.Slice Selection
2.5.2D and 3D Imaging
2.6.Spatial Resolution
3.Image Contrast
3.1.Relaxation
3.2.Diffusion
3.3.Chemical Shift Imaging
3.4.Spin Density and Parameter Images
4.Fast Imaging Techniques
4.1Multislicing Methoda
4.2Nonequilibrium Methods
4.3Multi Spin-Echo Sequence
4.4Multiple Gradient Echo Sequences
5.Measurements of Transport Processes
5.1q Space
5.2Motion encoding and Moments
5.3Velocity Maps
5.4Time-of-Flight Methods
6.Hardware and Materials
6.1Imaging and Micro-Imaging Hardware
6.2Imaging X Nuclei
6.3Liquids, Solids, and Gases

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging plays an increasingly important role in the investigation of processes and reactions. It introduces a wide range of contrast parameters that make it suitable for combining the well-established spectroscopic performance of NMR spectroscopy with schemes for obtaining spatially resolved data. Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is already a standard diagnostic tool with ever-increasing capabilities, more flexible detection schemes, and fast acquisition being developed. Nonclinical MRI can benefit from this development, but it is required to solve quite different problems with the same basic methodology: noninvasive process control, reaction monitoring, materials studies, transport phenomena, and quality control are some of the topics encountered in industrial chemistry. This article summarizes the necessary background of NMR imaging and the parameters that usually enter into the image information or can be extracted from it at the control of the experimenter. In particular, the use and effect of pulsed field gradients for encoding position and motion is discussed. A number of fast imaging methods are presented which are employed for routine use, and focus is put on the monitoring of transport processes, which are of particular interest to the field. Finally, some essential guidelines regarding the use of particular hardware are given, and the strategies for imaging liquid, solid, and gaseous substances are described.